R-11FM Missile
NATO Designation:  Scud

Updated 26 September 2002

This was the first Ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Navy.  Development started in 1954 and was based on the Army's R-11 missile.  Land based tests began in the spring of 1955 and out of 14 launches 12 were successful.  The first submarine to carry this missile was the converted Pr. 611 submarine B-67.  The submarine was ready in September 1955 and on 16 September 1955 it made the first in the world ballistic missile launch from a submarine.  The missile was accepted into service in 1959.

During the service life of these missiles from 1958 to 1967 a total of 77 launches were made from a submarine.  Out of those 59 were successful, 3 failed due to control problems, 7 failed due to crew errors and 8 failed for unknown reasons.  A total of 10 submarines carried this missile.

This missile was surface launched and required 2 hours to prepare for launch while underwater and then 5 more minutes while on the surface.  Three missiles were launched with 5 minute intervals.  Missile could be fired from a submaine moving at 8 to 12 knots and at sea states 4-5.

This was a single-stage missile with a liquid fuel engine, controlled by the gas jets mounted in the exhaust of the engines.  The missile was fueled by kerosene and nitric acid.


R-11FM Missile being loaded

Designation R-11FM
Ship Class Used On Zulu V class (Pr. AV611) (2 missiles) and Golf I class (Pr. 629) (3 missiles)
Date In Service 1959
Weight 11,905 lbs. (5,400 kg)
Dimensions 405.5 x 34.7 in (10.3 x 0.88 m)
Payload One warhead
Total payload weight 2,149.5 lbs. (975 kg)
Range 82 nm (150 km)
Propulsion Single-stage liquid fuel rocket
Data from
"Ballisticheskie Rakety Otechestvennogo Flota" (Ballistic Missiles of the Fatherland Fleet) by Yu. L Korshunov and E.M. Kytovoy
Special help from Vladimir Yakubov