The K94 was a Krupp gun built for Austria-Hungary's Panzerschiffs and is thought to be similar to German guns of that caliber, although the German guns fired lighter projectiles. The K97 guns were to a later Krupp design. The K/01 was built by Škoda to their own design which was similar to the K97.
Actual bore diameter of all guns was 23.8 cm (9.37").
|Designation||24 cm (9.4") L/40 K94 Krupp
24 cm (9.4") L/40 K97 Krupp 1
24 cm (9.4") L/40 K/01 Škoda
|Ship Class Used On 2||K94: Kaiser Karl IV 3
K97: Habsburg and Árpád
K/01: Babenberg, Sankt Georg and Erzherzog Karl class
|Date Of Design||K94: 1894
|Date In Service||K94: 1898
|Gun Weight||K94: 27.85 tons (28.3 mt) without breech
K97 4: 27.85 tons (28.3 mt) without breech - breech 1,451 lbs. (658 kg)
K/01: 28.15 tons (28.606 mt) without breech
|Gun Length oa||378 in (9.600 m)|
|Bore Length||349 in (8.866 m)|
|Rifling Length||286 in (7.277 m)|
|Grooves||(72) 0.059 in D x 0.274 in W (1.5 mm D x 6.97 mm W)|
|Lands||0.138 in (3.5 mm)|
|Twist||RH increasing 0 to 1 in 25|
|Rate Of Fire||K94 5: 0.25 to 0.33 rounds per minute
K97: about 2 rounds per minute
K/01: 2.5 rounds per minute
- ^A Note on Sources: Most references say that the K97 guns were built by Škoda but recent research (2020) by Erwin F. Sieche has determined that these guns were actually made by Krupp.
- ^Data on which ships used which guns is based upon recent research (2020) by Erwin F. Sieche.
- ^In 1916 the K94 guns on Kaiser Karl IV were replaced by K97 guns.
- ^A Note on Sources: "Naval Weapons of World War One" says that the K97 gun "weighed 307,000 kg (plus 658 kg breech)" but this is an impossibly high value. I believe that the author mistook the twin turret weight for the gun weight.
- ^The K94 had manually operated hoists, which greatly affected the rate at which rounds could be delivered to the guns.
|Projectile Types and Weights 1a||K94 guns
AP L/3.5 2a: 474.0 lbs. (215.0 kg)
Common L/4.4: 474.0 lbs. (215.0 kg)
K97 and K/01 guns
|Bursting Charge||K94 guns
AP L/3.5: 5.1 lbs. (2.3 kg)
Common L/4.4: 47.2 lbs. (21.42 kg)
K97 and K/01 guns
|Projectile Length||AP L/3.5: about 33.0 in (84 cm)
Common L/4.4: about 41.6 in (105.6 cm)
|Propellant Charge||Full charges
K94: 91.5 lbs. (41.5 kg) 21/700 mm M/97a
K97 & K/01 1a: between 97.4 and 102.1 lbs. (44.2 and 46.3 kg) of 21/700 mm M/97a
|Cartridge Case Weights||K94: 146.6 lbs. (66.5 kg)
K97: 157.6 lbs. (71.5 kg)
K/01: 155.3 lbs. (70.45 kg)
|Muzzle Velocity||Full charges
K94 w/AP & Common: 2,264 fps (690 mps)
K97 and K/01 w/APC 1a: 2,313 fps (705 mps)
K97 and K/01 w/Common 1a: 2,379 fps (725 mps)
|Approximate Barrel Life||N/A|
|Ammunition stowage per gun||Habsburg class and Sankt Georg: 80 rounds 4a
Others: N/A, but probably 80 rounds per gun
- ^A Note on Sources: There is some disagreement regarding muzzle velocity, shell weight and propellant weight in reference works. The data in the table above comes primarily from the Austrian-Hungarian naval documents listed below along with some deductions on my part.
- ^The AP L/3,5 was an uncapped AP shell.
- ^The APC for the K97 and K/01 guns was the AP L/3.5 shell with an AP cap and a ballistic cap added. The AP cap weighed about 28.7 lbs. (13 kg) and the ballistic cap about 2.2 lbs. (1 kg).
- ^Outfit for Sankt Georg was 40 APC and 40 Common per gun. This was probably the same for the other ships as well.
|4.78 degrees||6,560 yards (6,000 m)||---||---|
|9.15 degrees||---||---||10,940 yards (10,000 m)|
|10.48 degrees||10,940 yards (10,000 m)||---||---|
|16.25 degrees||---||13,120 yards (12,000 m)||---|
|24.93 degrees||17,280 yards (15,800 m)||---||---|
It should be understood that the maximum range of these guns could not be used and that the range tables of the time rarely exceeded 13,120 yards (12,000 m).
|6,560 yards (6,000 m)||16.9 in (43 cm)||---||---|
|10,940 yards (10,000 m)||---||7 in (18 cm)||4.7 in (12 cm)|
|11,000 yards (10,000 m)||11.8 in (30 cm)||---||---|
|17,280 yards (15,800 m)||10.2 in (26 cm)||---||---|
Data from "Austria-Hungary's Monarch Class Coast Defense Ships" and from "Naval Weapons of World War One."
|6,000 m||9.4 in (23.9 cm)||7.4 in (18.8 cm)|
|10,000 m||---||4.4 in (11.1 cm)|
|12,000 m||---||3.6 in (9.2 cm)|
Data from "Naval Weapons of World War One."
|1,000 m||11.0 in (28 cm)|
Data from "Naval Weapons of World War One" which also notes that this gun could penetrate (52 cm) of vertical wrought Iron plate at 5,470 yards (5,000 m).
Kaiser Karl IV (2): K94
Habsburg (1) and Árpád (1): K97
Babenberg (1): K/01
|Weight 3b||K94 single: 120.9 tons (122.9 mt)
K94 twin: 189.7 tons (192.7 mt)
K97 twin: 302.2 tons (307 mt)
|Elevation||K94 single: -4 / +20 degrees
K97 single: -4 / +20 degrees
K94 twin: -4 / +25 degrees
K97 twin: -4 / +20 degrees
|Elevation Rate 4b||K94 single: 0.8 degrees per second
K94 twin: 1.9 degrees per second
K97 single and twin: 0.5 degrees per second
|Train||+130 / -130 degrees|
|Train Rate||K94 twin: 5.2 degrees per second
K97 single and twin: 4.4 degrees per second
|Gun recoil||K/01: 23.1 in (58.6 cm) nominal
|Loading Angle||+4 degrees|
- ^K97 mountings were electrically powered for training, elevation and ramming. Hoists were also electrically powered. Twin turrets required a crew of 20 men.
- ^K/01 mountings used electric power for elevation. Rammers were pneumatically powered. Each gun had its own ammunition hoist. Each twin turret required a crew of 20 men.
- ^As described in the Gun Characteristics note, I believe that the value given in "Naval Weapons of World War One" for the gun weight is actually the twin turret weight.
- ^Elevation rates from "Naval Weapons of World War One," but I have to wonder if these are misprints as they seem unusually slow for the single K94 and for the single and twin K97 mountings, especially as compared to the K94 twin mounting elevation rate.
"Naval Weapons of World War One" by Norman Friedman
"Austro-Hungarian Battleships 1914-18" by Ryan Noppen
"Austria-Hungary's Monarch Class Coast Defense Ships" article by Erwin F. Sieche in Warship International No. 3, 1999
"Die Geschichte der deutschen Schiffsartillerie" by Paul Schmalenbach
"Sankt Georg - Österriech-Ungarns letzter Panzerkkreuzer IM Dienste der k.u.k Außenpolitik in Krieg un Frieden" by Nikolaus A. Sifferlinger
"Unterricht für das 24 cm Geschützes L/40 K. K/94 - S.M.S. Kaiser Karl VI" by Marinesektion
"Unterricht für das 24 cm Geschützes L/40 K. K/97 in Doppel- und Einzelturmlafette - S.M.S. Habsburg und Árpád " by Marinesektion
"Schußtafel für das 24 cm G. L/40 S. - S.M. Schiffe Babenburg, Sankt Georg und Typ Erzherzog Karl (große Ladung)" by Marinesektion
Special help from Peter Lienau, Aleš Maryška, Erwin F. Sieche and Mihály Krámli
20 November 2012 - New datapage
12 October 2013 - Added outfit and turret information
19 March 2019 - Converted to HTML 5 format, reorganized notes
01 August 2020 - Added notes regarding shell and propellant weights, added Note on Sources notes, moved Monarch class and Budapest photographs to German 24 cm SK L/40 datapage