The K94 was a Krupp gun built for Austria-Hungary coast defense ships and is thought to be similar to German guns of that caliber although the German guns fired lighter projectiles. The K97 guns were made by Škoda to a later Krupp design. The K/01 was a higher powered weapon built by Škoda to their own design.

Actual bore diameter of all guns was 23.8 cm (9.37").

Gun Characteristics

Designation 24 cm (9.4") L/40 K94 Krupp
24 cm (9.4") L/40 K97 Škoda
24 cm (9.4") G. L/40 K/01 Škoda
Ship Class Used On K94: Kaiser Karl IV and Monarch class
K97: Habsburg, Arpad, Babenburg and Erzerzog class
K/01: Sankt Georg
Date Of Design K94: 1894
K97: 1897
K/01: 1901
Date In Service K94: 1898
K97: 1904
K/01: 1904
Gun Weight K94: 27.85 tons (28.3 mt) without breech
K97 1: 27.85 tons (28.3 mt) without breech - breech 1,451 lbs. (658 kg)
K/01: 28.15 tons (28.606 mt) without breech
Gun Length oa 378 in (9.600 m)
Bore Length 349 in (8.866 m)
Rifling Length 286 in (7.277 m)
Grooves (72) 0.059 in D x 0.274 in W (1.5 mm D x 6.97 mm W)
Lands 0.138 in (3.5 mm)
Twist RH increasing 0 to 1 in 25
Chamber Volume N/A
Rate Of Fire K94 2: 0.25 to 0.33 rounds per minute
K97: about 2 rounds per minute
K/01: 2.5 rounds per minute
  • ^"Naval Weapons of World War One" says that the K97 gun "weighed 307,000 kg (plus 658 kg breech)" but this is an impossibly high value. I believe that the author mistook the twin turret weight for the gun weight.
  • ^The K94 had manually operated hoists, which greatly affected the rate at which rounds could be delivered to the guns.


Type Separate
Projectile Types and Weights K94 guns
   APC L/3.5: 468.9 lbs. (212.7 kg)
   CPC L/4.4: 468.9 lbs. (212.7 kg)

K97 and K/01 guns
   APC: 504.9 lbs. (229 kg)
   CPC: 504.9 lbs. (229 kg)

Bursting Charge K94 guns
   APC L/3.5: 5.1 lbs. (2.3 kg)
   CPC L/4.4: 47.2 lbs. (21.42 kg)

K97 and K/01 guns
   APC: N/A
   CPC: N/A

Projectile Length APC L/3.5: about 33.0 in (84 cm)
CPC L/4.4: about 41.6 in (105.6 cm)
Propellant Charge K94: 91.5 lbs. (41.5 kg) 21/700 mm M/97
K97: 101.7 lbs. (46.15 kg) 21/700 mm M/97
K/01: 99.2 lbs. (45.0 kg)
Cartridge Case Weights K94: 146.6 lbs. (66.5 kg)
K97: 157.6 lbs. (71.5 kg)
K/01: 155.3 lbs. (70.45 kg)
Muzzle Velocity K94: 2,264 fps (690 mps)
K97: 2,313 fps (705 mps)
K/01: 2,379 fps (725 mps)
Working Pressure N/A
Approximate Barrel Life N/A
Ammunition stowage per gun 1a Monarch: 80 rounds 2a
Sankt Georg: 80 rounds 2a
Others: N/A
  • ^The Hapsburg class carried 80 rounds per gun.
  • ^2.12.2Outfit for Monarch class and Sankt George was 40 APC and 40 HE per gun.


Elevation K94 K97 K/01
4.78 degrees 6,560 yards (6,000 m) --- ---
9.15 degrees --- --- 10,940 yards (10,000 m)
10.48 degrees 10,940 yards (10,000 m) --- ---
16.25 degrees --- 13,120 yards (12,000 m) ---
24.93 degrees 17,280 yards (15,800 m) --- ---

It should be understood that the maximum range of these guns could not be used and that the range tables of the time rarely exceeded 13,120 yards (12,000 m).

Armor Penetration

Penetration of Vertical Plate for K94 with 469 lbs. (212.7 kg) APC
Range Iron Harvey Krupp Cemented
6,560 yards (6,000 m) 16.9 in (43 cm) --- ---
10,940 yards (10,000 m) --- 7 in (18 cm) 4.7 in (12 cm)
11,000 yards (10,000 m) 11.8 in (30 cm) --- ---
17,280 yards (15,800 m) 10.2 in (26 cm) --- ---

Data from "Austria-Hungary's Monarch Class Coast Defense Ships" and from "Naval Weapons of World War One."

Penetration of Vertical Krupp Cemented Plate for K97 with 505 lbs. (229 kg) Shells
6,000 m 9.4 in (23.9 cm) 7.4 in (18.8 cm)
10,000 m --- 4.4 in (11.1 cm)
12,000 m --- 3.6 in (9.2 cm)

Data from "Naval Weapons of World War One."

Penetration of Vertical Krupp Cemented Plate for K/01 with 505 lbs. (229 kg) Shells
Range APC
1,000 m 11.0 in (28 cm)

Data from "Naval Weapons of World War One" which also notes that this gun could penetrate (52 cm) of vertical wrought Iron plate at 5,470 yards (5,000 m).

Mount/Turret Data

Designation Single Turret
   Kaiser Karl IV (2): K94
   Habsburg (1): K97

Two-gun Turrets
   Monarch (2) 1b: K94 2b
   Habsburg (1) and Erzherzog Karl (2): K97 3b
   Sankt Georg (1): K/01 4b

Weight 5b K94 single: 120.9 tons (122.9 mt)
K94 twin: 189.7 tons (192.7 mt)
K97 twin: 302.2 tons (307 mt)
Others: N/A
Elevation K94 single: -4 / +20 degrees
K97 single: -4 / +20 degrees
K94 twin: -4 / +25 degrees
K97 twin: -4 / +20 degrees
K/01: N/A
Elevation Rate 6b K94 single: 0.8 degrees per second
K94 twin: 1.9 degrees per second
K97 single and twin: 0.5 degrees per second
K/01: N/A
Train +130 / -130 degrees
Train Rate K94 twin: 5.2 degrees per second
K97 single and twin: 4.4 degrees per second
Others: N/A
Gun recoil K/01: 23.1 in (58.6 cm) nominal
Others: N/A
Loading Angle +4 degrees
  • ^The pre-dreadnought Budapest was reactivated in 1918 and had her forward turret removed. A 38 cm/L17 Škoda howitzer was mounted in its place, but firing trials showed poor accuracy due to the ship's roll after firing. The howitzer was later removed and the ship did not take part in the final actions of the war.
  • ^The Monarch class with their K94 turrets were the first Austro-Hungarian battleships to have fully enclosed mountings. The K94 mountings had manually powered hoists for each gun and the shells were pneumatically rammed. Each turret had a crew of 20 men.
  • ^K97 mountings were electrically powered for training, elevation and ramming. Hoists were also electrically powered. Twin turrets required a crew of 20 men.
  • ^K/01 mountings used electric power for elevation. Rammers were pneumatically powered. Each gun had its own ammunition hoist. Each twin turret required a crew of 20 men.
  • ^As described in the Gun Characteristics note, I believe that the value given in "Naval Weapons of World War One" for the gun weight is actually the twin turret weight.
  • ^Elevation rates from "Naval Weapons of World War One," but I have to wonder if these are misprints as they seem unusually slow for the single K94 and for the single and twin K97 mountings, especially as compared to the K94 twin mounting elevation rate.

Additional Pictures


"Naval Weapons of World War One" by Norman Friedman
"Austro-Hungarian Battleships 1914-18" by Ryan Noppen
"Austria-Hungary's Monarch Class Coast Defense Ships" article by Erwin F. Sieche in Warship International No. 3, 1999
"Die Geschichte der deutschen Schiffsartillerie" by Paul Schmalenbach
Special help from Peter Lienau, Aleš Maryška and Mihály Krámli

Page History

20 November 2012 - New datapage
12 October 2013 - Added outfit and turret information
19 March 2019 - Converted to HTML 5 format, reorganized notes