This weapon was used on the German Panzerschiffes and Battleships in both twin and single mounts and was considered to be quite successful. However, the German practice of using separate single purpose anti-ship and anti-aircraft batteries was wasteful of both space and weight.
A number of guns were used as coastal artillery. Two twin mountings originally planned for the cancelled carrier Graf Zeppelin were emplaced by September 1942 in northern Finland in the Petsamo area. A further two twin mountings were used in Northern Norway near Finmark. This latter battery was moved in 1945 north of Tromsø. Following the German surrender, this battery was taken over by the Norwegians and then used as part of their coastal defenses at Harstad.
Some of these guns survived until long after the end of the war. The small battleship Gneisenau was decommissioned in 1943 and then dearmed, with her guns then used in coastal fortifications in Denmark. In 1952, Denmark emplaced two of the twin mountings as coastal defense guns at Stevnsfort (Fort Stevns). These mountings were reduced to reserve status in 1984, but continued to be fired every year during training exercises. They "were fired for the last time in the summer of 2000, ending their operative career with an HE war-shot from turret no 1, driven 17 kms into the Baltic Sea and raising a column of spray to a height of 150 m, the shell detonating at an approximate depth of 17-18 m, according to the commander of the fort at the time." The fort was officially deactivated in 2001 and now exists solely as a museum.
The main components of this gun were the loose barrel, a jacket and a breech end-piece with a vertical sliding wedge breech. The breech mechanism was hand worked.
All German 15 cm guns had an actual bore diameter of 14.91 cm (5.87 in).
|Designation||155 mm/52 (6.1") MONARC|
|Ship Class Used On||Prototype on FGS Hamburg F220
Planned for F125 Class
|Date Of Design||2003|
|Date In Service||about 2010|
|Gun Weight||about 6,600 lbs (3,000 kg)|
|Gun Length oa||N/A|
|Bore Length||about 317 in (8.060 m)|
|Rifling Length||270.2 in (6.864 m)|
|Twist||Uniform RH 1 in 20|
|Chamber Volume||1,403 in3 (23 dm3)|
|Rate Of Fire||about 10 to 12 rounds per minute 1 2|
- ^A key difference for MONARC is that it uses standard NATO modular charges. This allows compatibility with land 155 mm cannons, at the cost of a slower rate of fire. Almost all current naval gun systems use single-piece cartridges with less complex handling requirements in order to achieve higher rates of fire.
- ^The automatic shell loading system has a pneumatically-driven flick rammer and automatic digital control, ammunition supply management and inductive fuze setting. This system can achieve rates of fire as fast as 3 rounds in less than 10 seconds. During firing tests in October 1997 with an improved autoloader, a PzH 2000 fired 12 rounds in 59.74 seconds and 20 rounds in 1 minute 47 seconds. As the barrel is not water-cooled, it would be expected that high rates of fire would significantly reduce barrel life.
|Projectile Types and Weights 1 2||APC: 99.87 lbs. (45.3 kg)
HE, nose fuzed: 99.87 lbs. (45.3 kg)
HE, base fuzed: 99.87 lbs. (45.3 kg)
Illum: 90.4 lbs. (41 kg)
|Bursting Charge||APC: 1.95 lbs. (0.885 kg)
HE, nose fuze: 8.6 lbs (3.89 kg)
HE, base fuze: 6.7 lbs. (3.06 kg)
|Projectile Length||APC: 21.9 in (55.5 cm) 3
HE, nose fuze: 25.8 in (65.5 cm) 3
HE, base fuze L4.3: 22.8 in (57.85 cm) 3
HE, base fuze L4.6: 26.7 in (67.89 cm) 3
Illum: 22.8 in (57.85 cm)
|Propellant Charge||31.2 lbs. (14.15 kg) RPC/32 or RPC/38 (7.5/3) 4|
|Cartrige Case Size and Weight||150 x 865 mm
Empty: 18.83 lbs. (8.54 kg)
Loaded: 51.8 lbs. (23.5 kg)
|Muzzle Velocity||AP and HE: 2,871 fps (875 mps)
|Working Pressure||19 tons/in2 (3,000 kg/cm2)|
|Approximate Barrel Life||1,100 rounds|
|Ammunition stowage per gun 5||Bismarck and "H": 105 to 150 rounds
Scharnhorst: 133 to 150 rounds
Panzerschiffes: 100 to 150 rounds
Graf Zeppelin: 115 rounds
"M" class: 120 rounds
Actual German designations APC 15 cm Pzgr. L/3,7 (m.Hb) HE, nose fuze 15 cm Spgr. L/4,5 Kz (m.Hb) HE, base fuze 15 cm Spgr. L/4,3 Bdz (m.Hb) HE, base fuze 15 cm Spgr. L/4,6 Bdz (m.Hb)
- ^AP shells had blue bodies, HE (both nose and base fuze types) had yellow bodies, practice shells had red bodies and Illumination shells had green bodies.
- ^184.108.40.206.4APC and HE ballistic caps had a radius of 8.5 calibers. The tangent of the ballistic cap to the shell body was inclined at 5 degrees, which resulted in a projectile with a short overall length.
- ^"German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945" claims that fore charges were used for these guns, but I have found no other evidence to support that claim. Pictures of ammunition for these weapons shows only cartridge cases.
- ^Outfits included APC, base and nose fuzed HE with and without tracer and illumination. However, APC was rarely carried.
|Elevation||Drh Mounts: -10 / +40 degrees
MPL/28 and MPL/35 Mounts: -10 / +35 degrees
MPL/36 Mounts: -10 / +37 degrees
|Elevation Rate||8 degrees per second|
|Train||360 degrees 6 7|
|Train Rate||9 degrees per second|
|Gun recoil||14.6 in (37 cm)|
|Loading Angle||About +3 degrees|
- ^Single MPL/28 mounts on the Deutschland class were modified to add armor protection and some had double doors installed on the back of the open shield in order to provide weather protection to the gun and crew. The MPL/35 mounts on the Scharnhorst class were similar in design but roomier and had additional armor protection.
- ^The twin turrets did not have the guns individually sleeved.
- ^The gun axes were 68.9 inches (175 cm) apart in the twin turrets.
- ^Bismarck and Tirpitz had one turret on each side equipped with a 6.5 m (21 feet 4 inches) rangefinder.
- ^The gun axes were 31.5 inches (80 cm) apart in the twin casemate mounts.
- ^Most of these mountings were designed to be able to make one complete revolution in either direction from the mid (fore and aft) position for a total of 720 degrees of train.
- ^Firing arcs were restricted to about -80 / +80 degrees for the battleships and about -150 / +150 degrees on the cruisers.
- "Naval Weapons of World War Two" by John Campbell
- "The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems 1994 Update" by Norman Friedman
- "Battleships: Axis and Neutral Battleships in World War II" by W.H. Garzke, Jr. and R.O. Dulin, Jr.
- "German Warships 1815-1945" by Erich Gröner
- "German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945" by Miroslaw Skwiot
- "German Cruisers of World War Two," "German Capital Ships of World War Two" and "Graf Zeppelin" article in "Warship Volume VIII" all by M.J. Whitley
- Letter by Arne Ingar Tandberg in "Warship Volume X"
Special help by Bjarne Carlsen, 1st Lt, RDAF