Russia / USSR
25 mm/79 (1") 110-PM (gun)
25 mm/79 (1") 2M-3 (mounting)
25 mm/79 (1") 2M-8 (mounting)
People's Republic of China
25 mm/60 Type 61
Updated 21 November 2007
This gun was based upon the 84-KM which was designed in 1943-44.  The specifications for a new weapon were first developed in 1945 and then modified in 1947.  Trials started in 1949 and the gun was accepted into service in 1953 as 110-PM.  Manufacturing in the USSR continued until 1984.

These guns were fed from 65-round belts and the early guns could also be fed by 7-round clips.  The twin mount on which these guns were originally used was designated as 2M-3.  At a later date, the mount was modified into 2M-3M version.  In this later version, the automatics were converted to gas-operation and the firing rate was increased to 470 - 480 rounds per minute during trials.  These guns were nominally rated as being air-cooled, but they were actually cooled with water from a special hose for at least 15 seconds during reloading.

At the same time as the 2M-3 mounting was being developed for surface ships, the 2M-8 wet mount was being developed for submarines.  This mounting used the same 110-PM guns as did the 2M-3 but the guns were clip-fed instead of belt-fed.  This version was accepted into service in 1954, but all guns were removed from submarines by the end of 1950s due to the changing nature of submarine warfare.  The guns were kept in storage for a long time afterwards but were eventually scrapped.

In addition to the above mountings there were also several experimental mountings which did not enter service.  The 2M-10 mount was an improved 2M-8 mount for submarines, but was not accepted into service.  In parallel with 2M-3 mount, there was also a BL-130 mount under development.  While the BL-130 had some advantages over the 2M-3 mounts, it was at a lower stage of readiness and rather then complete development it was decided to use the 2M-3 mount in its place.  At the end of 1940, BL-120-I and BL-120-II mountings intended for the Stalingrad (Pr. 82) class battlecruisers were being designed.  These were completely enclosed armored mounts.  However, these ships were cancelled and the only two mounts completed (renamed 4M-120-I and 4M-120-II) were installed on the destroyer Neustrashimy (Pr. 41) for several years, until later replaced with 45 mm SM-20-ZIF mounts.

This weapon is produced in the PRC under the designation Type 61.

Actual bore diameter is 25.4 mm (1.0").


25 mm/79 2M-3 on P-6 MTB about 1962


25 mm/79 in 2M-3 Twin Mounting

Gun Characteristics
Designation Russia / USSR:  25 mm/79 (1") 110-PM
PRC:  25 mm/60 (1") Type 61
Ship Class Used On Russia / USSR
      Small craft, auxiliary and armed civilian ships

      Zulu (Pr. 611), Whiskey (Pr. 613), Quebec (Pr. 615), Whale (Pr. 617), Pr. 618 and Pr. 622 class submarines

      Neustrashimy (NATO Tallinn) (Pr. 41) class destroyers

People's Republic of China
   Luda, Huangfen (Type 021), Houku (Type 024), Hainan (Type 037) and Shanghai (Type 062) classes
   Mine craft and other minor warships

Date Of Design 1948
Date In Service 2M-3:  1953
2M-8:  1954
Gun Weight 2M-3:  222.7 lbs. (101 kg)
2M-3M:  242.5 lbs. (110 kg)
Gun Length oa 112 in (2.845 m) (including flash suppresser)
Barrel Length 78.74 in (2 m)
Rifling Length 69.88 in (1.775 m)
Grooves 12
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume N/A
Rate Of Fire Cyclic:  450 rounds per minute
Effective:  270 - 300 rounds per minute
Type Fixed
Weight of Complete Round 1.42 - 1.48 lbs. (0.644 - 0.672 kg)
Projectile Types and Weights Russia / USSR
   FRAG incendiary tracer (OZR-85):  0.62 lbs. (0.281 kg)
   FRAG incendiary tracer (OZR-85M):  0.62 lbs. (0.281 kg)
   AP tracer (Br-85):  0.62 lbs. (0.281 kg)

   HE-I-T:  0.62 lbs. (0.282 kg)

Bursting Charge FRAG incendiary tracer (OZR-85):  0.025 lbs. (11.3 g) TNT
FRAG incendiary tracer (OZR-85M):  0.044 lbs. (20 g) A-IX-2 (HE / Incediary)
AP tracer (Br-85):  none

HE-I-T:  0.25 lbs. (11.5 g) RDX

Projectile Length FRAG incendiary tracer (OZR-85):  4.5 calibers
FRAG incendiary tracer (OZR-85M):  4.9 calibers
AP tracer (Br-85):  5.1 calibers

HE-I-T:  about 5 calibers

Complete Round Length 11.5 in (29.2 cm)
Cartridge Case Type, Size and Empty Weight Brass or Steel, 25 x 218 mm, N/A
actual case length is 218.7 mm
Propellant Charge 0.022 lbs (100 g)
Muzzle Velocity 2,950 fps (900 mps)
Working Pressure N/A
Approximate Barrel Life 12,000 rounds
Ammunition stowage per gun N/A

1) It should be noted that the performance of this weapon does not differ appreciatively from that of the Japanese 25 mm Type 96 AA gun of World War II.

2) Bourrelet diameter is 0.97 in (24.7 mm).

Elevation With 0.55 lbs. (0.25 kg) HE Shell
Range @ 45 degrees 3,300 yards (3,000 m)
Effective range 2,625 - 3,050 yards (2,400 - 2,800 m)
AA Ceiling @ 85 degrees about 5,500 feet (1,700 m)
Mount / Turret Data
Designation Russia / USSR Twin Mounts
   BL-120 (4M-120)

PRC Twin Mount
   Type 61

Weight  2M-3 (empty):  3,307 lbs. (1,500 kg)
2M-3M (empty):  3,340 lbs. (1,515 kg)
2M-8:  N/A
BL-120:  8,818 lbs. (4,000 kg)
Type 61:  3,824 lbs. (1,735 kg) (including 65 rounds)
Elevation 2M-3:  -10 / +85 degrees
2M-3M:  -10 / +85 degrees
BL-120:  -5 / +90 degrees
Type 61:   -10 / +85 degrees
Elevation Rate Hydraulic:  70 degrees per second
Manual:  25 degrees per second
Train 360 degrees
Train Rate Hydraulic:  40 degrees per second
Manual:  15 degrees per second
Gun recoil 8.03 - 8.11 in (20.4 - 20.6 cm)
Data from
"The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems 1991/92" by Norman Friedman
"Jane's Ammunition Handbook:  Ninth Edition 2000-2001" edited by Terry J. Gander and Charles Q. Cutshaw
"Jane's Fighting Ships 1998-99" edited by Capt. Richard Sharpe, RN
"Entsiklopedia Otechestvennoi Artillerii" (Encyclopedia of Fatherland [Russian] Artillery) by A.V. Shirokorad
Special help from Vladimir Yakubov