Russia / USSR
76.2 mm/30 (3") Pattern 1914/15 "Lender's Gun" (8-K)
Updated 21 November 2007

This was the main Russian AA gun of 1920s and 30s and remained in use by both the Army and Navy until World War II.  This gun was designed in the summer 1913 by engineer Tarnovski, but due to political infighting, Tarnovski was forced to sell his design to the Putilov factory where it was slightly modified by engineer Lender and was hence forth known by his name.  Production started in August 1914 and twelve guns were produced during the first production lot.  An additional twenty mounts with the elevation increased to +65 degrees were ordered by the Navy for delivery in July 1916, but none of these were actually delivered.  The guns did not enter naval service until the Russian Civil War, but they were removed from ships almost immediately and then installed on trucks, armored trains and fixed land mountings.

Production was halted in 1921, but then restarted in 1922 and continued until 1934.  In 1922, they received the official index 8-K, but they remained known as "Lender's Guns" during their service life.  By World War II, this was an obsolete weapon, but several dozen were still used during the war.

  This weapon was used with a wide variety of rounds, being able to fire all of the rounds for the Army's 3" (7.62 cm) Pattern 1902 field gun plus over a dozen specifically designed AA rounds (mostly different kinds of shrapnel).  Such diversity can be explained by the chaotic situation existing in Russia during this weapon's production and the fact that AA gunnery was still very much in the experimental stage.

The original gun was a built-up design, but in the 1930s production was switched to a linered barrel.  Used a vertical sliding breech block, with inertial semi-automatics.


7.62 cm/30 (3") guns on top of battleship Marat turret in 1928 
Photograph from "Last Giants of the Russian Imperial Fleet"


76.2 mm/30 Lender Gun now at Central Artillery Museum, St.Petersburg, Russia
Photograph copyrighted by Vladimir Yakubov

Gun Characteristics
Designation 3"/30 (7.62 cm) Pattern 1914/15 "Lender's Gun" (8-K)
Ship Class Used On Battleships:  Gangut class, Imp. Alexandr II
Cruisers:  Prut, Avrora, Chervona Ukraina class, Krasnyi Kavkaz
Destroyers:  Some Gavriil class, Izyaslav class, some Orfei class, Modified Ushakov class
Other:  River craft, armored trains and coast defense mountings
Date Of Design 1913
Date In Service 1914
Gun Weight 970 lbs. (440 kg)
Gun Length oa 90.83 in (2.307 m)
Bore Length N/A
Rifling Length 70.47 in  (1.790 m)
Grooves 24
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume 103.7 in3 (1.7 dm3)
Rate Of Fire 30 rounds per minute according to manual
10-12 rounds per minute practical
Type Fixed
Weight of Complete Round N/A
Projectile Types and Weights Shrapnel (Sh-354P) - 14.33 lbs. (6.5 kg)
Shrapnel (Sh-354R) - 14.33 lbs. (6.5 kg)
Shrapnel (Sh-354G) - 14.51 lbs. (6.58 kg)
(There were over a dozen other rounds in use during its career, but these were the primary ones)
Bursting Charge N/A
Projectile Length Shrapnel (Sh-354P) - 3.6 calibers
Propellant Container Type and Weight Cartridge - N/A
Propellant Charge N/A
Muzzle Velocity 1,929 fps (588 mps)
Working Pressure 2300 kg/cm2
Approximate Barrel Life 5000
Ammunition stowage per gun N/A
Elevation With 14.33 lbs. (6.5 kg) Shrapnel (Sh-354P)  shell
Max. Ballistic Range 10,390 yards (9,500 m)
Max. AA Ceiling with 22-second fuze 19,000 feet (5,800 m)
Max. AA Ceiling with T-3 fuze 20,000 feet (6,100 m)
Mount / Turret Data
Designation Single AA Mount
Weight 2,866 lbs. (1,300 kg)
Elevation -5 / +65 degrees for older mounts
-5 / +75 degrees for newer mounts
-5 / +85 degrees for World War II mounts
Rate of Elevation 2 degrees per second
Train 360 degrees
Rate of Train 3.6 degrees per second
Gun Recoil 16.54 - 17.72 in (42  -45 cm)
Data from
"Sovetskie Boevye Korabli 1941-45:  IV Vooruzhnie" (Soviet Warships 1941-45:  Volume IV Armament) by A.V. Platonov
"Entsiklopedia Otechestvennoi Artillerii" (Encyclopedia of Fatherland (Russian) Artillery) by A.V. Shirokorad
Special help from Vladimir Yakubov