Description

The Pattern 1913 was the Russian produced version of this weapon. The Mark A and Mark B versions were produced for Russia by the British firm of Vickers. The Mark A was manufactured prior to World War I while the Mark B was manufactured during World War II.

This weapon was originally designed as a cartridge gun, but the Russian Navy wanted a cheaper and simpler design, so Obukhov modified the weapon to use bag ammunition with a Welin breech-block. In 1913 the Obukhov factory received an order for 471 of these guns. By 1917, 147 guns had been manufactured with the balance to be delivered in 1917-18. However, due to the Russian Revolution, these remaining weapons were never completed. In addition to the guns built by Obukhov, a further 100 guns were ordered from Vickers in 1913 with most of them being delivered by 1917. The Royal Navy considered this weapon for arming DAMS during World War I, but decided against it as it would have added yet another medium-caliber weapon to the inventory.

The Russians used these guns to rearm some of the older protected cruisers, as secondary armament on Imperatrisa Maria class battleships and as main armament for the new Svetlana class light cruisers. By 1917 the Naval Ministry had 117 guns on hand plus some additional guns used for coastal defense under army command. During the Russian Civil War these guns armed many river gunboats and barges.

Redesigns during the 1920s and 1930s attempted to increase elevation, but these were not particularly successful and none were adopted for general service use. However, in 1930 two mounts with +40 degree elevation were built for river monitor Udarny. As of 1941, the Soviet Navy had over a hundred of these guns in service, with 21 in the Baltic Fleet, 7 in the Pacific Fleet, 64 in the Black Sea Fleet, 6 in the North Sea Fleet and 12 in the Amur Flotilla.

Vickers delivered 55 guns and 55 spare barrels for the Mark B during the latter half of World War II. In addition, the USA supplied shrapnel rounds for these weapons during World War II.

The Mark A consisted of A tube, three B tubes to the muzzle, jacket and a small breech ring. The breech bush holding the Welin breech block was screwed into the jacket. The Pattern 1913 was to a similar design. Mark B had a loose barrel, jacket and breech ring with breech bush and gun ring.

Gun Characteristics

Designation 130 mm/55 (5.1") Pattern 1913
130 mm/55 (5.1") Marks A and B
Ship Class Used On
  • During World War I:
    • Complete: Imperatritsa Maria class, Diana, Bogatyr class, Prut, Khrabry, Grozyaschii, coastal batteries
    • Incomplete: Borodino class, Variag (rearmament), Svetlana class, Admiral Nevelskoy
  • During Russian Civil War: Used to arm river gunboats and floating batteries
  • During World War II:
    • Aurora, Komintern, Chervona Ukraina, Krasnyi Krym, minelayer Marti, four Shkval class monitors
    • Krasnaya Abhazia gunboats, monitor Udarny, coastal defense and railroad guns
Date Of Design 1912
Date In Service 1914
Gun Weight 5.136 - 5.290 mt
Gun Length oa 281.5 in (7.150 m)
Bore Length 276.3 in (7.019 m)
Rifling Length 230.8 in (5.862 m)
Grooves (30) 0.0395 in deep x 0.36 in (1.00 x 9.14 mm)
Lands 0.1756 in (4.46 mm)
Twist Uniform RH 1 in 29.89
Chamber Volume 1,070 in3 (17.53 dm3)
Rate Of Fire 5 - 8 rounds per minute

Ammunition

Type Bag
Projectile Types and Weights Semi-AP mod 1928: 73.86 lbs. (33.5 kg)
HE mod 1911: 81.26 lbs. (36.86 kg)
HE mod 1911 (without a cap): 81.26 lbs. (36.86 kg)
HE-FRAG mod 1928 (OF-054): 73.6 lbs. (33.4 kg)
HE-FRAG mod 1928 (OF-028): 75.33 lbs. (34.17 kg)
AA (DG-028): 73.6 lbs. (33.4 kg)
Shrapnel (USA): 64.4 lbs. (29.2 kg)
Shrapnel (made before 1916): N/A
Diving: 73.08 lbs. (33.15 kg)
Star Shell (made before 1916): N/A
Star Shell (S-072): 75.62 lbs. (34.3 kg)
Bursting Charge Semi-AP mod 1928: 3.68 lbs. (1.67 kg)
HE mod 1911: 10.38 lbs. (4.71 kg)
HE mod 1911 (without a cap): 8.6 lbs. (3.9 kg)
HE-FRAG mod 1928 (OF-054): 8.05 lbs. (3.65 kg)
HE-FRAG mod 1928 (OF-028): 5.95 lbs. (2.7 kg)
AA (DG-028): 5.82 lbs. (2.64 kg)
Shrapnel (USA): 0.82 lbs. (0.37 kg)
Diving: 14.51 lbs. (6.58 kg)
Star Shell (S-072): 0.07 lbs. (0.03 kg)
Projectile Length Semi-AP mod 1928: 5.0 calibers
HE mod 1911: 5.0 calibers
HE mod 1911 (without a cap): 4.74 calibers
HE-FRAG mod 1928 (OF-054): 5.2 calibers
HE-FRAG mod 1928 (OF-028): 5.0 calibers
AA (DG-028): 5.0 calibers
Shrapnel (USA): 3.9 calibers
Shrapnel (made before 1916): 3.4 calibers
Diving: 5.0 calibers
Star Shell (made before 1916): 3.6 calibers
Star Shell (S-072): 4.9 calibers
Propellant Charge 1 Most: 24.51 lbs. (11 kg)
Diving: 1.76 lbs. (0.8 kg)
Star Shell: 16.54 (7.5 kg)
Muzzle Velocity Semi-AP mod 1911: 2,700 fps (823 mps)
Semi-AP mod 1928: 2,825 fps (861 mps)
HE mod 1911: 2,700 fps (823 mps)
HE-FRAG mod 1928 (OF-054): 2,825 fps (861 mps)
HE-FRAG mod 1928 (OF-028): 2,825 fps (861 mps)
AA (DG-028): 2,825 fps (861 mps)
Shrapnel (USA): 2,920 fps (890 mps)
Diving: 780 fps (237.7 mps)
Star Shell (S-072): 2,215 fps (675 mps)
Working Pressure 19 tons/in2 (3,000 kg/cm2)
Approximate Barrel Life 300 rounds
Ammunition stowage per gun Single casemate mounts: 245 rounds
Imp. Maria: 200 rounds
Diana and Svetlana -150 rounds
Muraviev Amurski: 175 rounds
Udarny: 100 round normal (152 rounds overload)
  1. ^The propellant was in a single bag.

Range

Ranges with assorted shells
Elevation 81.26 lbs. (36.86 kg) HE & AP mod 1911 73.86 lbs. (33.5 kg) 1928 mod 1928 64.4 lbs. (29.2 kg) Shrapnel 73.08 lbs. (33.15 kg) Diving 75.6 lbs. (34.3 kg) Star
20 degrees 16,800 yards (15,364 m) 20,400 yards (18,655 m) --- --- ---
22 degrees --- --- --- --- 11,600 yards (10,610 m)
30 degrees 20,000 yards (18,290 m) 24,400 yards (22,315 m) 18,400 yards (16,830 m) 3,400 yards (3,110 m) ---
35.5 degrees --- --- 19,480 yards (17,815 m) --- ---
40 degrees 21,800 yards (19,936 m) --- --- --- ---
45 degrees 22,245 yards (20,314 m) --- --- --- ---

Elevations above 30 degrees would only be applicable to coastal artillery mounts.

Mount/Turret Data

Designation
  • Single Mounts:
    • Imperatritsa Maria (20), Diana (rearmed), Bogatyr (rearmed), Prut (rearmed), Khrabry (5), Grozyaschii: N/A
  • Single Turret:
    • Monitor Udarny (2): N/A
Weight 17.16 mt
Elevation Older mounts: -5 / +20 degrees
Newer mounts: -5 / +30 degrees
Udarny Turrets: -5/ +40 degrees
Rate of Elevation 4 degrees per second
Train 360 degrees possible (constrained by superstructure)
Rate of Train 4 degrees per second
Gun Recoil 16 in (40.6 cm)
Loading Angle Any

Sources

Data from:

  • "Naval Weapons of World War Two" by John Campbell
  • "Sovetskie Boevye Korabli 1941-45: IV Vooruzhnie" (Soviet Warships 1941-45: Volume IV Armament) by A.V. Platonov
  • "Morskaya Artilleriya Rossiyskogo Flota 1867-1922" (Naval Artillery of the Russian Fleet 1867-1922) and "Entsiklopedia Otechestvennoi Artillerii" (Encyclopedia of Fatherland [Russian] Artillery) both by A.V. Shirokorad
  • "Destroyers of World War Two" and "Cruisers of World War Two" both by M.J. Whitley

Special help from Vladimir Yakubov

Page History

10 May 2006
Benchmark
17 October 2012
Updated to latest template