The earliest of these weapons was the Sponsell Gun, manufactured by Pratt and Whitney which had a vertically sliding breech block. No Mark number was assigned to this gun. Mark 1 was the Hotchkiss light, short Mark 1 gun on a non-recoil mount. Mark 1 Mod 1 was the Hotchkiss light, long Mark 2 gun on a recoil mount. Both of these Mark 1 guns were produced in different lengths, making it difficult to assess performance.
Mark 2 was a Driggs-Schroeder heavy Mark 1. Mark 3 was the Hotchkiss heavy, long Mark 1 gun. Mark 4 was the Driggs-Schroeder heavy, long Mark 2. Mark 5 was the Hotchkiss heavy Mark 2.
Mark 6 was the heavy machine cannon which was used as an anti-aircraft gun during World War I. It was originally the Maxim-Nordenfeldt heavy, automatic Mark 1 and entered service just before the Spanish-American War. This gun used a water-jacket. Mark 7 was similar but had a shorter barrel.
Mark 8 was the Hotchkiss heavy, semi-automatic Mark 3. Mark 9 was the Maxim-Nordenfeldt light, automatic Mark 1. Mark 10 was a rapid-fire aircraft gun with a Hotchkiss-type breech. Mark 11 was a Hotchkiss-type line-throwing gun. Mark 12 was a monobloc gun with a Driggs sliding and rotating drop breech block. Mark 13 a Mark 5 with monobloc rather than built-up construction. Mark 14 was a Baldwin design manufactured by Poole during World War I and was an automatic gun with a flexible mount. The Mark 15 was similar but used a much larger cartridge for a higher muzzle velocity.
Many automatic guns were remounted as anti-aircraft weapons during World War I.
The data that follows is specifically for the Hotchkiss 40 gun unless otherwise noted.
|Ship Class Used On||Many|
|Date Of Design||about 1885|
|Date In Service||1886|
|Gun Length oa||N/A|
|Twist||Mark 5: RH 1 in 30
|Length Of Rifling||N/A|
|Rate Of Fire||Semi-automatic: 25 rounds per minute|
|Weight of Complete Round||about 1.62 lbs. (0.7 kg)|
|Projectile Types and Weights||HE: 1.058 lbs. (0.48 kg)
Common Mark 2 Mods 0 and 1: 1.088 lbs. (0.49 kg)
|Bursting Charge 1||HE: N/A
Common Mark 2: 0.026 lbs. (0.012 kg) Black Powder
|Projectile Length||HE: N/A
Common Mark 2: 3.56 in (9.0 cm)
|Cartridge Case Type, Size and Empty Weight||Mark 2: Brass, 37 x 137 mm, 0.406 lbs. (0.18 kg)|
|Propellant Charge||0.15 lbs. (0.070 kg) NC|
|Muzzle Velocity||Light guns: 1,500 fps (457 mps)
Heavy guns: 2,000 fps (610 mps)
Mark 15, only: 3,000 fps (914 mps)
|Approximate Barrel Life||N/A|
|Ammunition stowage per gun||N/A|
Bourrelet diameter was 1.445 inches (3.67 cm).
- ^Some Common rounds used a mixture of Black Powder and TNT.
|Elevation||Distance||Strking Velocity||Angle of Fall||Time of Flight|
|1.4 degrees||1,000 yards (910 m)||1,007 fps (307 mps)||2.0||2.2 seconds|
|4.0 degrees||2,000 yards (1,830 m)||740 fps (226 mps)||6.9||5.8 seconds|
|8.4 degrees||3,000 yards (2,740 m)||576 fps (176 mps)||16.0||10.5 seconds|
|11.4 degrees||3,500 yards (3,200 m)||519 fps (158 mps)||22.7||13.5 seconds|
- "Naval Weapons of World War Two" by John Campbell
- "US Naval Weapons" by Norman Friedman
- "A Treatise on Rifling of Guns" by Carl F. Jeansén
- "Range and Ballistic Tables 1935" by U.S. Department of Ordnance and Gunnery
- "Ammunition: Instructions for the Naval Service: Ordnance Pamphlet 4 - May 1943" by Department of the Navy
- "U.S. Explosive Ordnance: Ordnance Pamphlet 1664 - May 1947" by Department of the Navy
Special help from Leo Fischer
- "No matter what shells are fired in oyster wars, the resource always loses", article from Bay Journal Vol 13 - Number 1 of March 2003