35 cm (14") C35/91

Ship Class Used On Pre-World War I Torpedo boats and World War I U-boats
Date Of Design 1890
Date In Service 1891
Weight 701 lbs. (318 kg)
Overall Length 187 in (4.752 m)
Explosive Charge 89 lbs. (40.5 kg) TNT
Range / Speed 225 - 550 yards (200 - 500 m) / 25.9 knots
440 yards (400 m) / 29 knots
Power Brotherhood system

Smaller version of the C45/91 torpedo for use on smaller warships. Replaced the earlier C/84a. During World War I, following minor modifications, all of these torpedoes still remaining in the arsenals were successfully used by U-boats during 1915-16.

35 cm (14") C35/91 GA

Ship Class Used On Pre-World War I Torpedo boats and World War I U-boats
Date Of Design 1890
Date In Service 1891
Weight 701 lbs. (318 kg)
Overall Length 187 in (4.752 m)
Explosive Charge 89 lbs. (40.5 kg) TNT
Range / Speed 225 - 550 yards (200 - 500 m) / 26 knots
550 yards (500 m) / 29 knots
Power Brotherhood system

Increased range over the C35/91 achieved via greater accuracy which let it run further without deviation.

45 cm (17.7") C45/91 Br

Ship Class Used On Brandenburg Class and early Small Cruisers (like Gefion, Freya and Geier)
Date Of Design 1890
Date In Service 1891
Weight 1,193 lbs. (541 kg)
Overall Length 201 in (5.112 m)
Explosive Charge 193 lbs. (87.5 kg) TNT
Range / Speed 550 yards (500 m) / 32 knots
870 yards (800 m) / 26 knots
Power Brotherhood system

The first German 32-knot torpedo using the Woolwich-tail form. This torpedo was of stronger construction to allow launching heights greater than 8 feet (2.5 m).

45 cm (17.7") C45/91S

Ship Class Used On Battleships and small cruisers
Date Of Design 1890
Date In Service 1892
Weight 1,212 lbs. (550 kg)
Overall Length 201 in (5.100 m)
Explosive Charge 434 lbs. (197 kg) TNT
Range / Speed 550 yards (500 m) / 33.5 knots
1,310 yards (1,200 m) / 27 knots
Power Brotherhood system

Improved version of C45/91 Br.

45 cm (17.7") C/03 and C/03 D

Ship Class Used On Most pre-World War I surface ships
Date Of Design 1903
Date In Service 1905
Weight C/031: 460 lbs. (662 kg)
C/03 D: 1,422 lbs. (675 kg)
Overall Length 203 in (5.150 m)
Explosive Charge 388 lbs. (176 kg) TNT
Range / Speed C/03:
1,640 yards (1,500 m) / 31 knots
3,280 yards (3,000 m) / 26 knots
C/03 D:
2,020 yards (1,850 m) / 31 knots
4,050 yards (3,700 m) / 26 knots
Power C/03: Brotherhood system
C/03 D: Wet Heater

The C/03 was first designed as an improved version of C/91 series. A modified version, the C/03 D, was the first German torpedo outfitted with a heater system. This increased their range over the C/03 by about 23%. As these torpedoes used a saltwater spray, corrosion problems prohibited any trial exercises, greatly reducing the Navy's proficiency with this weapon.

45 cm (17.7") C/06 and C/06 D

Ship Class Used On U-boats, starting with U-3
Date Of Design 1906
Date In Service 1907
Weight C/06: 1,704 lbs. (773 kg)
C/06 D: 1,786 lbs. (810 kg)
Overall Length 222 in (5.650 m)
Explosive Charge 270 lbs. (122.6 kg) TNT
Range / Speed C/06:
1,640 yards (1,500 m) / 34.5 knots
3,380 yards (3,000 m) / 26 knots
C/06 D:
1,640 yards (1,500 m) / 34.5 knots
5,470 yards (5,000 m) / 27 knots
Power C/06: Brotherhood system
C/06 D: Wet Heater

Submarine version of the C/03. First German torpedo which received a 4-cylinder instead of a 3-cylinder engine. All torpedoes from C/06 on were outfitted with gyro angle setters, first +/- 45°, later +/-90°.

45 cm (17.7") C/07

Ship Class Used On Coastal Defense Batteries
Date Of Design 1907
Date In Service 1908
Weight 1,764 lbs. (800 kg)
Overall Length 236 in (6.000 m)
Explosive Charge 242.5 lbs. (110 kg) TNT
Range / Speed 1,640 yards (1,500 m) / 36 knots
2,190 yards (2,000 m) / 32 knots
Power C/07: Brotherhood system
C/07 D: Wet Heater

Coastal Battery version of the C/03. Last German 45 cm (17.7") torpedo.

50 cm (19.7") G/6 and G/6D

Ship Class Used On G/6: Ostfriesland-class, U-boats from U-19 and T-boats from G-174
G/6 D: Small Cruisers of the Breslau Class and following ships
Date Of Design 1908
Date In Service 1911
Weight N/A
Overall Length 236 in (6.000 m)
Explosive Charge G/6: 353 lbs. (160 kg) TNT/Hexanitrodiphenylamin (Hexanite) mixture
G 6 D: 362 lbs. (164 kg) TNT/Hexanitrodephenylamin (Hexanite) mixture
Range / Speed G/6:
2,410 yards (2,200 m) / 35knots
5,470 yards (5,000 m) / 27 knots
G/6 D:
9,190 yards (8,400 m) / 27 knots
3,830 yards (3,500 m) / 35 knots
Power G/6: Decahydronaphthalene (Decalin) Wet-Heater
G/6 D: Kerosene Wet-Heater

Replaced on most ships by the G7 series by the time of the Battle of Jutland.

50 cm (19.7") G7

Ship Class Used On Capital Ships of World War I
Date Of Design 1910
Date In Service 1913
Weight 3,009 lbs. (1,365 kg)
Overall Length 276 in (7,020 m)
Explosive Charge 430 lbs. (195 kg) Hexanite
Range / Speed 4,370 yards (4,000 m) / 37 knots
10,170 yards (9,300 m) / 27 knots
Power Decahydronaphthalene (Decalin) Wet-Heater

Originally designed for surface ships, but late in World War I was also used on U-boats.

60 cm (23.6") H8

Ship Class Used On Bayern and Mackensen classes, Lützow, Hindenburg, Cöln II, Dresden II and T-boat S 113
Date Of Design 1912
Date In Service 1915
Weight N/A
Overall Length 315 in (8.000 m)
Explosive Charge 463 lbs. (210 kg) Hexanite
Range / Speed 6,550 yards (6,000 m) / 36 knots
15,310 yards (14,000 m) / 30 knots
Power Brotherhood system wet-heater

Only a few ships ever received this "super torpedo." It is not known if any of them were successfully used.

70 cm (27.6") J9

Ship Class Used On Not in service
Date Of Design 1912
Date In Service 1915
Weight N/A
Overall Length 354 in (9.000 m)
Explosive Charge about 694 lbs. (315 kg) Hexanite
Range / Speed 19,700 yards (18,000 m) / 29 knots
Power Brotherhood system wet-heater

Proposed torpedo that did not enter service. There was also a proposed Junkers torpedo of 75 cm but no details survive.

Sources

Data from:

  • "Jutland: An Analysis of the Fighting" and "Naval Weapons of World War Two" both by John Campbell
  • "Deutsche Grosskampfschiffe: 1915 bis 1918" by Freidrich Forstmeier and Siegfried Breyer
  • "Naval Weapons of World War One" by Norman Friedman
  • BA/MA RM 92-2711 "Klarschiffrolle SMS Hindenburg"

Special help from Peter Lienau and John Hall

Page History

21 April 2007 - Benchmark

03 September 2012 - Added C35/91 table

28 December 2013 - Added information on J9 torpedo and photograph of U-Boat