Japan
Torpedoes Pre-World War II
Updated 15 March 2008


14" (35.6 cm) Torpedoes
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14" (35.6 cm) Shu Type 84 (1884)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1883 (?)
Date In Service 1884
Weight 606 lbs. (275 kg)
Overall Length 180 in (4.57 m)
Explosive Charge 44 lbs. (20 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 440 yards (400 m) / 22 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Schwarzkopff.
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14" (35.6 cm) Shu Type 88 (1888)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1887 (?)
Date In Service 1888
Weight 732 lbs. (332 kg)
Overall Length 182 in (4.62 m)
Explosive Charge 126 lbs. (57 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 440 yards (400 m) / 26 knots
N/A  / 660 yards (600 m) / 24 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Schwarzkopff.
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14" (35.6 cm) Ho Type 26 (1893)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1892 (?)
Date In Service 1893
Weight 745 lbs. (338 kg)
Overall Length 176 in (4.46 m)
Explosive Charge 108 lbs. (49 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 660 yards (600 m) / 26 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Whitehead.
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14" (35.6 cm) Ho Type 30 (1897)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1896 (?)
Date In Service 1897
Weight 745 lbs. (338 kg)
Overall Length 180 in (4.56 m)
Explosive Charge 110 lbs. (50 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 880 yards (800 m) / 24 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Whitehead.  Gyroscope equipped.
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14" (35.6 cm) Ho Type 32 (1899)
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Ship Class Used On Torpedo Boats
Date Of Design 1898 (?)
Date In Service 1899
Weight 745 lbs. (338 kg)
Overall Length 180 in (4.56 m)
Explosive Charge 110 lbs. (50 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 880 yards (800 m) / 24 knots
N/A / 2,730 yards (2,500 m) / 15 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Whitehead.  Gyroscope equipped.  Generally speaking, an improved Type 30.  Used by torpedo boats during the Russo-Japanese War.
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18" (45 cm) Torpedoes
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18" (45 cm) Ho Type 30 (1897)
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Ship Class Used On Pre-Dreadnoughts
Date Of Design 1896 (?)
Date In Service 1897
Weight 1,173 lbs. (532 kg)
Overall Length 195 in (4.95 m)
Explosive Charge 220 lbs. (100 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 1,100 yards (1,000 m) / 27 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  First 45 cm (17.7") torpedo in service.  Purchased from Whitehead.  First used on the pre-dreadnoughts Fuji and Yashima in 1897.
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18" (45 cm) Ho Type 32 (1899)
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Ship Class Used On Pre-Dreadnoughts
Date Of Design 1898 (?)
Date In Service 1899
Weight 1,193 lbs. (541 kg)
Overall Length 195 in (4.95 m)
Explosive Charge 198 lbs. (90 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 1,100 yards (1,000 m) / 28 knots
N/A / 3,300 yards (3,000 m) / 15 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Whitehead.  Gyroscope equipped.  Generally speaking, an improved Type 30.
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18" (45 cm) Type 37 (1904)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1904
Date In Service 1904
Weight 1,193 lbs. (541 kg)
Overall Length 195 in (4.95 m)
Explosive Charge 198 lbs. (90 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 1,100 yards (1,000 m) / 28 knots
N/A / 3,300 yards (3,000 m) / 15 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  First Japanese designed and manufactured torpedo to enter service use.  Built by Kure Navy Yard.  This torpedo resembled the Whitehead Type 32 but had a heavier warhead and used higher air pressure.  Production quantities were low.
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18" (45 cm) Ho Type 38 No. 1 (1905)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1904 (?)
Date In Service 1905
Weight 1,360 lbs. (617 kg)
Overall Length 203 in (5.15 m)
Explosive Charge 220 lbs. (100 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 1,100 yards (1,000 m) / 27 knots
N/A / 3,300 yards (3,000 m) / 20 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Whitehead.  Gyroscope equipped.  Used a three-bladed propeller.
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18" (45 cm) Ho Type 38 No. 2 "A" (1905)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1904 (?)
Date In Service 1905
Weight 1,354 lbs. (614 kg)
Overall Length 200 in (5.09 m)
Explosive Charge 209 lbs. (95 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 1,100 yards (1,000 m) / 31 knots
N/A / 3,300 yards (3,000 m) / 20 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Whitehead.  Gyroscope equipped.  Used a 4-cylinder engine.
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18" (45 cm) Ho Type 38 No. 2 "B" (1905)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1904 (?)
Date In Service 1905
Weight 1,354 lbs. (614 kg)
Overall Length 200 in (5.09 m)
Explosive Charge 209 lbs. (95 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 1,100 yards (1,000 m) / 40 knots
N/A / 4,400 yards (4,000 m) / 23 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  Purchased from Whitehead.  Gyroscope equipped.  Used a 4-cylinder engine with a dry-type air heater.
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18" (45 cm) Ho Type 42 (1909)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1908 (?)
Date In Service 1909
Weight 1,455 lbs. (660 kg)
Overall Length 203 in (5.15 m)
Explosive Charge 209 lbs. (95 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 1,100 yards (1,000 m) / 40 knots
N/A / 5,500 yards (5,000 m) / 22 knots
Propulsion Compressed air
Notes:  The last torpedo purchased from Whitehead, with fifty torpedoes being delivered.  Gyroscope equipped.  Used a 4-cylinder engine with an improved dry-type air heater.
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18" (45 cm) Type 43 (1910)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1909
Date In Service 1910
Weight 1,462 lbs. (663 kg)
Overall Length 204 in (5.19 m)
Explosive Charge 209 lbs. (95 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 5,500 yards (5,000 m) / 26 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air fresh-water
Notes:  Japanese torpedo based upon plans furnished by Whitehead.  Used a 4-cylinder Schwarzkopff-style radial engine.
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18" (45 cm) Type 44 No. 1 (1911)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1910
Date In Service 1911
Weight 1,585 lbs. (719 kg)
Overall Length 212 in (5.39 m)
Explosive Charge 243 lbs. (110 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 4,400 yards (4,000 m) / 36 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air fresh-water
Notes:  Intended for capital ships of the 8-8 program.  Used a 4-cylinder Schwarzkopff-style radial engine with jet heaters.
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18" (45 cm) Type 44 No. 2 (1911)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1910
Date In Service 1911
Weight 1,653 lbs. (750 kg)
Overall Length 212 in (5.39 m)
Explosive Charge 243 lbs. (110 kg) Picric Acid or Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 4,400 yards (4,000 m) / 35 knots
N/A / 8,750 yards (8,000 m) / 26 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air fresh-water
Notes:  Intended for capital ships of the 8-8 program.  Used a 4-cylinder Schwarzkopff-style radial engine with jet heaters.
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21" (53.3 cm) Torpedoes
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21" (53.3 cm) Type 43 (1910)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1909
Date In Service 1910
Weight 2,617 lbs. (1,187 kg)
Overall Length 252 in (6.39 m)
Explosive Charge 287 lbs. (130 kg) Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 8,750 yards (8,000 m) / 27 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air fresh-water
Notes:  A larger companion to the 17.7" (45 cm) Type 43 (1910), this torpedo was also based upon plans supplied by Whitehead and used a 4-cylinder Schwarzkopff-style radial engine.
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21" (53.3 cm) Type 44 No. 1 (1911)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1910
Date In Service 1911
Weight 2,921 lbs. (1,325 kg)
Overall Length 264 in (6.70 m)
Explosive Charge 353 lbs. (160 kg) Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 7,650 yards (7,000 m) / 35 knots
N/A / 10,900 yards (10,000 m) / 27 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air fresh-water
Notes:  A larger companion to the 17.7" (45 cm) Type 44 No. 1 (1911), this torpedo was also based upon plans supplied by Whitehead and used a 4-cylinder Schwarzkopff-style radial engine with jet heaters.
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21" (53.3 cm) Type 44 No. 2 (1911)
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Ship Class Used On Surface Ships
Date Of Design 1910
Date In Service 1911
Weight 2,851 lbs. (1,293 kg)
Overall Length 264 in (6.70 m)
Explosive Charge 353 lbs. (160 kg) Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 7,650 yards (7,000 m) / 35 knots
N/A / 10,900 yards (10,000 m) / 27 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air fresh-water
Notes:  A larger companion to the 17.7" (45 cm) Type 44 No. 2 (1911), this torpedo was also based upon plans supplied by Whitehead and used a 4-cylinder Schwarzkopff-style radial engine with jet heaters.
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53.3 cm (21") Type 6 (1917)
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WTJAP_PreWWII_Type_6_pic.jpg

Type 6 Torpedo captured at Balikpapan, Borneo after World War II
Drums allowed this torpedo to be floated out from shore and then fired remotely
Torpedo lacks warhead
Australian War Memorial photograph 069511

Ship Class Used On World War I destroyers, RO submarines
Date Of Design 1917
Date In Service 1918
Weight 3,157 lbs. (1,432 kg)
Overall Length 269 in (6.84 m)
Explosive Charge 448 lbs. (203 kg) Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 7,650 yards (7,000 m) / 35 knots
N/A / 10,900 yards (10,000 m) / 32 knots
N/A / 16,400 yards (15,000 m) / 26 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air wet-heater
Notes:  These torpedoes had originally been intended for the battlecruisers and battleships of the "8-8-8" plan.  When many of those ships were cancelled following signing of the Washington Naval Limitation Treaty, this became the standard torpedo for new cruisers and destroyers.  On 6 October 1917, the 53.3 cm (21") torpedo was adopted as the standard size for both surface ships and submarines.  On this same date, metric units were adopted for official designations.
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53.3 cm (21") Type 89 (1929)
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Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design 1929
Date In Service 1931
Weight 3,677 lbs. (1,668 kg)
Overall Length 282 in (7.163 m)
Explosive Charge 661 lbs. (300 kg) Type 91
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 6,000 yards (5,500 m) / 45 knots
N/A / 6,550 yards (6,000 m) / 43 knots
N/A / 10,900 yards (10,000 m) / 35 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air wet-heater
Notes:  Widely used in the first half of World War II.  Used a two-cylinder double-acting engine of the Whitehead pattern.
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61 cm (24") Torpedoes
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61 cm (24") Type 8 No. 1 (1920)
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Ship Class Used On Destroyers and Light Cruisers
Date Of Design 1919
Date In Service 1920
Weight 4,883 lbs. (2,215 kg)
Overall Length 331 in (8.415 m)
Explosive Charge 661 lbs. (300 kg) Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 10,900 yards (10,000 m) / 37 knots
N/A / 6,800 yards (6,200 m) / 43 knots
Propulsion Wet-heater
Notes:  Four cylinder Schwarzkopff radial engine.
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61 cm (24") Type 8 No. 2 (1920)
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Ship Class Used On Destroyers and Light Cruisers
Date Of Design 1919
Date In Service 1920
Weight 5,207 lbs. (2,362 kg)
Overall Length 331 in (8.415 m)
Explosive Charge 763 lbs. (346 kg) Shimose
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 10,900 yards (10,000 m) / 38 knots
N/A / 16,400 yards (15,000 m) / 32 knots
N/A / 21,900 yards (20,000 m) / 27 knots
Propulsion Wet-heater
Notes:  Four cylinder Schwarzkopff radial engine.
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61 cm (24") Type 90 (1930)
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Ship Class Used On Heavy Cruisers and Fubuki destroyer classes
Date Of Design Development started in 1928
Date In Service 1933
Weight 5,743 lbs. (2,605 kg)
Overall Length 27 ft 10 in (8.485 m)
Explosive Charge 827 lbs. (375 kg)  Type 97
Power / Range / Speed N/A / 7,650 yards (7,000 m) / 46 knots
N/A / 10,900 yards (10,000 m) / 42 knots
N/A / 16,400 yards (15,000 m) / 35 knots
Propulsion Kerosene-air wet-heater
Notes:  This engine was a more powerful version of the one used in the 53 cm Type 89.  This torpedo should not be confused with the later 61 cm (24") Oxygen fueled torpedoes.
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Data from
"Naval Weapons of World War Two" by John Campbell
"Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War" by Eric Lacroix and Linton Wells II
Page History

15 March 2008 - Benchmark
08 September 2014 - Added photograph of Type 6