Russia / USSR Torpedoes
Post-World War II

Updated 19 November 2008


Surface Ships and Submarine Torpedoes

533 mm (21") ET-46

.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1946
Weight 3,990 lbs. (1,810 kg)
Overall Length 293 in (7.450 m)
Explosive Charge 992 lbs. (450 kg)
Range / Speed 6,600 yards (6,000 m) / 31 knots
Power Lead-acid battery
Note:  Non-homing torpedo.  ET stands for elektricheskaia torpeda - electric-powered torpedo.
.
533 mm (21") SAET-50 and SAET-50M
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service SAET-50 - 1950
SAET-50M - 1955
Weight 3,638 lbs. (1,650 kg)
Overall Length 293 in (7.450 m)
Explosive Charge 827 lbs. (375 kg)
Range / Speed SAET-50 - 4,400 yards (4,000 m) / 23 knots
SAET-50M - 6,600 yards (6,000 m) / 29 knots
Power Lead-acid battery
Notes:

1) Passive acoustic homing anti-ship torpedo. The range of the homing system was 600 to 800 m.

2) SAET-50M was equipped with more powerful battery and gas-screening system, which lowered screw propellers noise.

3) SAET stands for samonavodiashaiasia akusticheskaia elektricheskaia torpeda - homing acoustic electric-powered torpedo.

.
533 mm (21") 53-51
.
Ship Class Used On Surface ships and submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1951
Weight 4,134 lbs. (1,875 kg)
Overall Length 299 in (7.600 m)
Explosive Charge 661 lbs. (300 kg)
Range / Speed 4,400 yards (4,000 m) / 51 knots
8,750 yards (8,000 m) / 39 knots
Power Kerosene-air wet heater
Note:  Non-homing torpedo, modification of 53-39 torpedo, equipped with maneuvering device and new active magnetic fuse.
.
533 mm (21") ET-56
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1956
Weight 4,409 lbs. (2,000 kg)
Overall Length 291 in (7.400 m)
Explosive Charge 661 lbs. (300 kg)
Range / Speed 6,600 yards (6,000 m) / 36 knots
Power Lead-acid battery
Note:  Non-homing torpedo.
.
533 mm (21") 53-56, 53-56V and 53-56VA
.
Ship Class Used On Surface ships and submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 53-56:  1956
53-56V:  1964
53-56VA:  1966
Weight 4,409 lbs. (2,000 kg)
Overall Length 303 in (7.700 m)
Explosive Charge 882 lbs. (400 kg)
Range / Speed 53-56
   8,750 yards (8,000 m) / 50 knots
   14,200 yards (13,000 m) / 40 knots

53-56V
   4,400 yards (4,000 m) / 50 knots
   8,750 yards (8,000 m) / 40 knots

53-56VA
   N/A / 29 knots

Power 53-56:  Kerosene-Oxygen Wet-Heater
53-56V:  Kerosene-Air Wet-Heater
53-56VA:  Kerosene-Air Wet-Heater
Notes:

1)  53-56 and 53-56V were non-homing torpedoes while the 53-56VA was an acoustic wake following homing torpedo.

2) 53-56V was a simplified version of 53-56 and used air instead of oxygen - the V stood for vozdushnaia - air-using.

3) 53-56V and 53-56VA were only produced for export.

.
533 mm (21") 53-57
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1957
Weight 4,409 lbs. (2,000 kg)
Overall Length 299 in (7.600 m)
Explosive Charge 672 lbs. (305 kg)
Range / Speed 19,700 yards (18,000 m) / 45 knots
Power Kerosene-Hydrogen Peroxide Turbine
Notes:  Non-homing torpedo.  Engine was based upon the German Stein-Butt torpedo of 1944.
.
533 mm (21") 53-58
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1968
Weight N/A
Overall Length N/A, but probably 299 in (7.600 m)
Explosive Charge Nuclear warhead
Range / Speed N/A
Power N/A
Notes:  Non-homing torpedo.  First Soviet nuclear-warhead torpedo.
.
533 mm (21") SET-53 and SET-53M
.
WTRussian_post-WWII_Admiral_Vinogradov_pic.jpg

Quad torpedo tubes aboard Admiral Vinogradov (BPD-554) in 1992
U.S. Navy Photograph No. DN-SC-93-04775

Ship Class Used On Surface ships and submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service SET-53:  1958
SET-53M:  1964
Weight 3,263 lbs. (1,480 kg)
Overall Length 307 in (7.800 m)
Explosive Charge 220 lbs. (100 kg)
Range / Speed SET-53:  8,750 yards (8,000 m) / 23 knots
SET-53M:  15,300 yards (14,000 m) / 29 knots
Power SET-53:  Lead-acid battery
SET-53M:  Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  ASW passive acoustic homing torpedo.  The range of the homing system was 660 yards (600 m).
.
533 mm (21") 53-61 "Alligator" and 53-61M
.
Ship Class Used On Surface ships and submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 53-61:  1961
53-61M:  1969
Weight N/A
Overall Length N/A
Explosive Charge 672 lbs. (305 kg)
Range / Speed 16,400 yards (15,000 m) / 55 knots
24,000 yards (22,000 m) / 35 knots
Power Kerosene-Hydrogen Peroxide Turbine
Note:  Acoustic wake following homing torpedo based upon the 53-57 torpedo.  The 53-61M torpedo has an improved homing system.
.
533 mm (21") SAET-60 and SAET-60M
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service SAET-60:  1961
SAET-60M:  1969
Weight 4,409 lbs. (2,000 kg)
Overall Length 307 in (7.800 m)
Explosive Charge 661 lbs. (300 kg)
Range / Speed SAET-60:  14,200 yards (13,000 m) / 42 knots
SAET-60M:  about 16,400 yards (15,000 m) / 40 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Note:  Passive acoustical homing.
.
533 mm (21") 53-65, 53-65K and 53-65M
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 53-65:  1965
53-65K:  1969
53-65M:  1969
Weight 4,563 to 4,630 lbs. (2,070 to 2,100 kg)
Overall Length 283 in (7.200 m)
Explosive Charge 661 lbs. (300 kg)
Range / Speed 53-65:  19,700 yards (18,000 m) / 45 knots
53-65K:  20,800 yards (19,000 m) / 45 knots
53-65M:  24,000 yards (22,000 m) / 44 knots
Power 53-65 and 53-65M:  Kerosene-Hydrogen Peroxide Turbine
53-65K:  Kerosene-Oxygen Turbine
Note:  Acoustic wake following homing torpedo.  Based upon 53-61 torpedo.  Engines for 53-65K were also used on self-moving sea mine SMDM.
.
533 mm (21") SET-65 "Yenot-2"
.
Ship Class Used On Surface ships and submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1965
Weight 3,836 lbs. (1,740 kg)
Overall Length 307 in (7.800 m)
Explosive Charge 452 lbs. (205 kg)
Range / Speed 17,500 yards (16,000 m) / 40 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  Guided Electrical Torpedo with active acoustic guidance.  The range of the homing system was about 880 yards (800 m).
.
533 mm (21") TEST-68
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1969
Weight 3,307 lbs. (1,500 kg)
Overall Length 311 in (7.900 m)
Explosive Charge 220 lbs. (100 kg)
Range / Speed 15,300 yards (14,000 m) / 29 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  This was the first Russian wire-guided torpedo and was based upon the SET-53M.  ASW wire-guided torpedo with active/passive acoustic homing.  The range of the homing system was 880 yards (800 m).  Could be used to depths of 650 feet (200 m).
.
533 mm (21") TEST-71, TEST-71MKE and TEST-3
.
Ship Class Used On TEST-71:  Submarines
TEST-3:  Pr.1124 Small ASW ships
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service TEST-71:  1971
TEST-3:  1977
Weight TEST-71:  3,858 lbs. (1,750 kg)
TEST-71MKE:  4,012 lbs. (1,820 kg)
Overall Length 311 in (7.900 m)
Explosive Charge 452 lbs. (205 kg)
Range / Speed 16,400 yards (15,000 m) / 40 knots
27,300 yards (25,000 m) /35 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  ASW wire-guided torpedo with active/passive acoustic homing.  The range of the homing system was 880 yards (800 m).  Could be used to depths of about 1,300 feet (400 m).
.
400 mm (15.75") MGT-1
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1961
Weight 1,124 lbs. (510 kg)
Overall Length 177 in (4.500 m)
Explosive Charge 176 lbs. (80 kg)
Range / Speed 6,600 yards (6,000 m) / 28 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:

1) Passive acoustic homing torpedo.

2) This was the first Russian light-weight torpedo and was designed to provide submarines with cheap weapon for self-defense against ASW surface ships.  Several years later, the Soviet Navy decided that this was a bad idea, and so MGT-1 was not further developed.

3) MGT stands for malogabaritnaia torpeda - small-sized torpedo.

.
400 mm (15.75") SET-40 (MGT-2) and SET-40U
.
Ship Class Used On Surface ships and submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service SET-40:  1962
SET-40U:  1968
Weight about 1,212 lbs. (550 kg)
Overall Length 177 in (4.500 m)
Explosive Charge 176 lbs. (80 kg)
Range / Speed 8,700 yards (8,000 m) / 29 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  ASW active/passive acoustic homing torpedo. The range of the homing system was 660 - 880 yards (600 - 800 m).
.

650 mm (25.6") 65-73
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1973
Weight 8,820+ lbs. (4,000+ kg)
Overall Length 433 in (11.000 m)
Explosive Charge Nuclear
Range / Speed 54,700 yards (50,000 m) / 50 knots
Power Kerosene-Hydrogen Peroxide Turbine
Notes:  Non-homing torpedo.  Designed for killing aircraft carriers or coastal targets with a single torpedo.
.
650 mm (25.6") 65-76 "Kit" (Whale)
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1976
Weight 8,820+ lbs. (4,000+ kg)
Overall Length 433 in (11.000 m)
Explosive Charge 992 lbs. (450+ kg)
Range / Speed 54,700 yards (50,000 m) / 50 knots
Power Kerosene-Hydrogen Peroxide Turbine
Notes:  Long range anti-ship submarine wake following torpedo.  The conventional warhead version of the 65-73.  It is believed that the submarine Kursk was destroyed by the explosion of hydrogen peroxide in a 65-76 torpedo.
.
533 mm (21") UGST
.
Ship Class Used On Surface combatants, MTBs and submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1990s
Weight 4,850 lbs. (2,200 kg)
Overall Length 283 in (7.200 m)
Explosive Charge 440.9 lbs. (200 kg)
Range / Speed max range - 43,800 yards (40,000 m)
max speed - 50 knots
Power Mono-propellant fueled axial piston engine with pump-jet
Notes:  Acoustic wake-follower universal torpedo with active/passive homing.  Could be used to depths of 1,650 feet (500 m)
.
533 mm (21") VA-111 "Shkval" (Squall)
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design Began in 1960
Date In Service 1977 (service prototypes)
1998 (terminal search version)
Weight 5,952 lbs. (2,700 kg)
Overall Length 323 in (8.200 m)
Explosive Charge 1,543 lbs. (700 kg)
Range / Speed 12,000 - 16,400 yards (11,000 - 15,000 m) / 200 knots
Earlier versions may have had a maximum range of 7,700 yards (7,000 m)
Power Solid-fuel Rocket
Notes:

1) Rocket-propelled torpedo meant to be used as a last ditch weapon.  Generates a gas-cavity which gives it great speed but also prevents it from having any sort of homing guidance system.  For this reason, a newer version was developed which runs out at high speed but then slows to search for a target.  The first tests of the modernized Shkval torpedo were held by the Russian Pacific Fleet in the spring of 1998.  An export version, denoted as "E" version, was shown at the IDEX 99 exhibition in Abu Dhabi in early 1999.  This export version reportedly does not have the terminal guidance system.

2) This was not the kind of torpedo that sank the Russian submarine Kursk.  She was sunk by an explosion of a 65-76 "Kit" torpedo (see above).

.
533 mm (21") USET-80
.
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1980
Weight 4,410+ lbs. (2,000+ kg)
Overall Length 311 in  (7.900 m)
Explosive Charge 440 - 661 lbs. (200 - 300 kg)
Range / Speed about 22,000 yards (20,000 m) / 40 - 50 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  Acoustic wake following torpedo with active/passive homing.  Can be used to depths of over 1,300 feet (400 m).
.

Aircraft and Helicopter Torpedoes

450 mm (17.7") RAT-52

.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1952
Weight 1,382 lbs. (627 kg)
Overall Length 153 in (3.897 m)
Explosive Charge 529 lbs. (240 kg)
Range / Speed 570 yards (520 m) / 58 - 68 knots
Power Solid rocket fuel
Notes:

1) Non-homing anti-ship airborne rocket-powered torpedo.  The rocket engine ignited in air, providing a maximum speed of 300 - 400 knots (150 - 200 mps) and range of up to 11,000 yards (10,000 m).

2) RAT stands for reaktivnaia aviacionnaia torpeda - rocket airborne torpedo.

.
450 mm (17.7") 45-54VT
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1954
Weight about 2,100 lbs. (950 kg)
Overall Length 177 in (4.500 m)
Explosive Charge 441 lbs. (200 kg)
Range / Speed 4,400 yards (4,000 m) / 39 knots
Power Kerosene-Air Wet-Heater
Notes:  Non-homing anti-ship torpedo.  Could be dropped from as high as 33,000 feet (10,000 m) through the use of a parachute system.
.
450 mm (17.7") 45-56NT
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1956
Weight about 2,100 lbs. (950 kg)
Overall Length 177 in (4.500 m) - 224 in (5.700 m) with parachute
Explosive Charge 441 lbs. (200 kg)
Range / Speed 4,400 yards (4,000 m) / 39 knots
Power Kerosene-Air Wet-Heater
Notes:  Non-homing anti-ship torpedo.  Similar to 45-54VT, but designed to be launched from lower altitudes.
.
450 mm (17.7") AT-1
.
Ship Class Used On Helicopters
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1962
Weight 1,235 lbs. (560 kg)
Overall Length N/A
Explosive Charge Estimated 154 to 353 lbs. (70 kg to 160 kg)
Range / Speed 5,500 yards (5,000 m) / 27 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  Airborne ASW active/passive acoustic homing torpedo based on elements of the SET-40 torpedo.  The range of the homing system was 550 to 1,100 yards (500 to 1,000 m).  This design had too fragile a battery and homing system to be dropped from fixed-wing aircraft, so it was used only by helicopters.
.
533 mm (21") AT-2 and AT-2U
.
Ship Class Used On AT-2:  Aircraft, launched from IL-38, BE-12 and TU-142
AT-2U:  Payload of 85R Metel ASW missile
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service AT-2:  1965
AT-2U:  1973
Weight 2,315 lbs. (1,050 kg)
Overall Length 189 in (4.800 m)
Explosive Charge Estimated 176 to 331 lbs. (80 to 150 kg)
Range / Speed 7,700 yards (7,000 m) / 40 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  Airborne ASW active/passive acoustic homing torpedo.  The range of the homing system was 1,100 yards (1,000 m).
.
400 mm (15.75") SET-72
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1972
Weight about 1,543 lbs. (700 kg)
Overall Length 177 in (4.500 m)
Explosive Charge Estimated 132 to 220 lbs. (60 - 100 kg)
Range / Speed 8,700 yards (8,000 m) / +40 knots
Power Silver magnesium seawater battery
Notes:  Universal active/passive homing torpedo.
.
400 mm (15.75") SET-73 (MGT-3)
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service N/A
Weight N/A
Overall Length N/A
Explosive Charge N/A
Range / Speed N/A
Power Battery (type not identified)
Notes:  Electrical anti-submarine torpedo.
.

450 mm (17.7") APR-1
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1960s
Weight 1,433 lbs. (650 kg)
Overall Length 146 in (3.700 m)
Explosive Charge 176 lbs. (80 kg)
Range / Speed 870 yards (800 m) / N/A
Power Solid-fuel Rocket
Notes:  Airborne ASW active/passive acoustic homing torpedo.  The range of the homing system was 1,400 yards (1,300 m).  Could be used to depths of 1,400 feet (420 m).  APR stands for Aviacionnaia Podvodnaia Raketa - airborne underwater rocket.
.
450 mm (17.7") VTT-1 (T-67 Strizh)
.
Ship Class Used On Helicopters
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1976
Weight 1,190 lbs. (540 kg)
Overall Length N/A
Explosive Charge 154 lbs. (70 kg)
Range / Speed 5,500 yards (5,000 m) / 28 knots
Power Silver-zinc battery
Notes:  Airborne ASW wire-guided torpedo with active/passive acoustic homing.  Wire-guided version of AT-1.  The range of the homing system was 550 to 1,100 yards (500 to 1,000 m).  Could be used to depths of 650 feet (200 m).  VTT stands for Vertoletnaia Teleupravliaemaia Torpeda - helicopter launched wire-guided torpedo.
.
450 mm (17.7") AT-3 and UMGT-1
.
Ship Class Used On AT-3:  Aircraft and helicopters
UMGT-1:  Payload of 85RU Rastrub and RPK-6 Vodopad ASW Missiles
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1981
Weight 1,538 lbs. (698 kg)
Overall Length 150 in (3.800 m)
Explosive Charge 132 lbs. (60 kg)
Range / Speed 8,700 yards (8,000 m) / 41 knots
Power Silver-magnesium seawater battery
Notes:  Airborne ASW active/passive acoustic homing torpedo.  The range of the homing system was 1,650 yards (1,500 m).  Can be used to depths of 1,650 feet (500 m).
.
330 mm (13") Kolibri
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft and helicopters
Date Of Design 1978 (?)
Date In Service N/A
Weight 542 lbs. (246 kg)
Overall Length 106 in (2.700 m)
Explosive Charge 97 lbs. (44 kg)
Range / Speed 5,500 - 8,700 yards (5,000 to 8,000 m) / 45 knots
Power Mono-propellant (Otto II) Turbine
Notes:  Airborne ASW active/passive acoustic homing torpedo.  The range of the homing system was 1,100 yards (1,000 m).  Could be used to depths of 1,500 feet (450 m).  This was reportedly a copy of the US Mark 46 Mod 0 torpedo delivered to the USSR from Vietnam or Cuba in the middle 1970s.
.
350 mm (13.78") APR-2
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft and helicopters
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1980s
Weight 1,268 lbs. (575 kg)
Overall Length 146 in (3.700 m)
Explosive Charge 220 lbs. (100 kg)
Range / Speed 1,600 - 2,200 yards (1,500 to 2,000 m) / 62 knots
Power Solid-fuel Rocket
Notes:  Airborne ASW active/passive acoustic homing torpedo.  The range of the homing system was 1,650 yards (1,500 m).  Could be used to depths of over 2,000 feet (600 m).
.
355 mm (13.98") APR-3
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft and helicopters
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1990s
Weight 992 lbs. (450 kg)
Overall Length 126 in (3.200 m)
Explosive Charge 168 lbs. (76 kg)
Range / Speed N/A
Power Solid-fuel pump-jet propulser
Notes:  Airborne ASW active/passive acoustic homing torpedo.  The range of the homing system was 2,200 yards (2,000 m).  Could be used to depths of 2,600 feet (800 m).
.
400 mm (15.75") APSET-95
.
Ship Class Used On Aircraft
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 1995 (?)
Weight 1,587 lbs. (720 kg)
Overall Length 151 in (3.845 m)
Explosive Charge 132 lbs. (60 kg)
Range / Speed max range - 33,000 yards (30,000 m)
max speed - 50.0 knots
Power Battery (type not identified)
Notes:  Aircraft anti-submarine torpedo.
.
Data from
"Voenno-morskoy flot SSSR 1945-1991 (The USSR Navy)" by V. Kouzin and V. Nikolsky
"Voennye Korabli Rossii 1997-1998" (Combat Ships of Russia 1997-1998) by A.S. Pavlov
"Janeís Underwater Warfare Systems Yearbook 1997-98" edited by Anthony J. Watts
---
Typhoon Magazine
"Voenni Parad" (Military Parade Magazine) 1996-2000 issues
---
Special help from Vladimir Yakubov and Grigoriy Chernov