Order of Battle
Jutland / Skagerrak
31 May to 1 June 1916
Contributed by
Richard Hawes, Steffen Boel Jørgensen, Peter Lienau and Bruce Wright


(d)  RN battleships and battlecruisers fitted with fitted with main armament directors (source: Marder, v.3, p.260)
(o)  RN battleships and battlecruisers not fitted with fitted with main armament directors (source: Marder, v.3, p.260)
No battleships or battlecruisers had been fitted with fitted with secondary armament or searchlight directors in 1916 (source: Marder, v.3, p.260)

+ = ships and personnel lost

* = Ships badly damaged

I. Neutral forces

A small Danish tramp steamer, the N.J. Fjord

“a silent ship with a pyramid of white canvas, serene, peaceful and quiet, … a large barque lying almost becalmed, but moving gently through the water, rippling with the light breeze, her canvas only half filled”: probably the Norwegian barque Candace

II. British Forces:

1. Battle Cruiser Force, Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty, Rosyth

1BCS, Rosyth
HMS Lion (d) *, flag, Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty, VABCS, Captain A.E.M. Chatfield, Gunnery Officer Commander G.F. Longhurst, Chief Gunner Mr. (later Captain) A. Grant; (repairs at Rosyth and Tyneside, rejoined the fleet on 19th July without Q turret, which was replaced 6th – 23rd September)
HMS Princess Royal (d), flag *, Rear Admiral O.de Brock, RA1BCS, Captain W.H. Cowan, Gunnery Officer Commander C.B. Prickett; (refit & repair at Portsmouth, rejoined the fleet on 15th July)
HMS Queen Mary (d) +, Captain C.I. Prowse, Gunnery Officer Commander R.H. Llewellyn
HMS Tiger (d) *, Captain H.B. Pelly (under repair at Rosyth, rejoined the fleet on 2nd July)

2BCS, Rosyth
HMS New Zealand (d), flag, Rear Admiral W.C. Packenham, RA2BCS, Captain JFE. Green
HMS Indefatigable + (d), Captain C.A. Selby +

1LCS, Rosyth
HMS Galatea, flag, Commodore E.S. Alexander-Sinclair, Cmdre 1LCS
HMS Phaeton, Commander JE Cameron
HMS Inconstant, Capt. BS Thesiger
HMS Cordelia, Capt. TPH Beamish

2LCS, Rosyth
HMS Southampton *, flag, Commodore W.E. Goodenough, Cmdre, 2LCS
HMS Birmingham, Captain A.A.M. Duff
HMS Nottingham, Captain C.B. Miller
HMS Dublin *, Captain A.C. Scott

3LCS, Rosyth
HMS Falmouth, flag, Rear Admiral TDW. Napier, RA3LCS, Captain J.D. Edwards
HMS Yarmouth, Captain T.D. Pratt, (linking ship between light cruiser screen and VABCF)
HMS Birkenhead, Capt. E Reeves
HMS Gloucester, Capt. WF Blunt

Seaplane carrier (Rosyth):
HMS Engadine, Lt.Commander C.G. Robinson (4 Short Type 184 seaplanes)
Planned to be ready to attack Zeppelins off the Horns Reef on 1st June 1916, where the ships would be escorted by light cruisers and destroyers.

HMS Onslow and HMS Moresby detached from 1DF to escort HMS Engadine while sending up floatplanes at 1447, 31st May.
Launched 1 a/c at 1508, Ft.Lt. F.J. Rutland and Assistant Paymaster G.S.Trewin, observer; forced to fly very low because of low clouds, fired at by SMS Frankfurt, Pillau and Elbing , and reported light cruisers’ change of course to VABCS.  Burst a petrol pipe at 1547, and recovered at 1600.
Cloud base at 1000’ to 1200’, patches below 900’
The sea became too rough to launch other a/c after 1530.

13 DF, (Rosyth) screening 1BCS:
HMS Champion, Captain J.U. Farie (D.13)

9 Admiralty M class destroyers:
HMS Nestor +, Commander the Hon. E.B.S. Bingham
HMS Nomad +, Lt. Commander P.Whitfield
HMS Narborough, Lt. Commander G. Corlett
HMS Obdurate, Lt. Commander C.H.H. Sams
HMS Petard, Lt. Commander E.C.O. Thompson
HMS Pelican, Lt. Commander K.L. Beattie
HMS Onslow *, Lt. Commander J.C. Tovey
HMS Moresby, Lt. Commander R.V. Allison
HMS Nicator, Lt. Commander J.E.A. Mocatta

1 Yarrow M class destroyer:
HMS Nerissa, Lt. commander M.C.B. Legge

10DF (part, detached from Harwich Force), screening 1BCS

2 Talisman class destroyers
HMS Turbulent +, Lt. Commander D. Stuart
TMS Termagant, Lt. Commander C.P. Blake

9DF (part, detached from Harwich Force), screening 2BCS
4 L class destroyers
HMS Lydiard, Commander M.L. Goldsmith
HMS Liberty, LtCdr. PWS King
HMS Landrail, Lt. Commander F.E.G.H Hobart
HMS Laurel, Lt. HDC Stanistreet

10DF (part, detached from Harwich Force), screening 2BCS
2 Admiralty M class destroyers
HMS Moorsom, Commander J.C. Hodgson
HMS Morris, Lt. Commander  E.S. Grantham

Temporarily attached Battle Cruiser Force:

5BS, Rosyth, from Scapa Flow
13th Subdivision:
HMS Barham (d) *, flag, Rear Admiral Hugh Evans-Thomas, RA5BS, Captain A.W.C. Waller (repairs completed at Devonport, 4th July)
HMS Valiant (d), Captain M. Woollcombe
14th Subdivision:
HMS Warspite(d) *, Captain E. Phillpotts (repairs completed at Rosyth, 20th July)
HMS Malaya (d) *, Captain the Hon. A.D.E.H. Boyle (repairs completed at Invergordon, 10th July)

1DF (Rosyth) (part), screening 5BS
HMS Fearless, Captain C.D. Roper, Captain  (D.1)

I class destroyers:
HMS Acheron, Cdr. CG Ramsey
HMS Ariel, LtCdr. Tippet
HMS Attack, LtCdr. CHN James
HMS Hydra, Lt. FG Glossop
HMS Badger, Lt. Commander C.A. Fremantle
HMS Goshawk, Cdr. DF Moir
HMS Defender *, Lt. Commander LR. Palmer
HMS Lizard, LtCdr. E Brooke
HMS Lapwing, LtCdr. AH Gye

2. Grand Fleet, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, Scapa Flow

2BS, 1st Division, Cromarty
HMS King George V (d), flag, Sir Martyn Jerram, VA2BS
HMS Ajax (d), Capt. GH Baird
HMS Centurion (d), Capt. M Culme-Seymour
HMS Erin (o), Capt. VA Stanley

2BS, 2nd Division, Cromarty
HMS Monarch (d), flag Rear Admiral Arthur Leveson, RA2BS
HMS Conqueror (d), Capt. HHD Tothill
HMS Orion (d), Capt. O Backhouse
HMS Thunderer (d), Captain J.A. Ferguson

Attached 2BS
HMS Boadicea, Captain L.C.S. Woollcombe

4BS, 3rd Division, Scapa Flow
HMS Iron Duke (d), flag, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, CinCGF, Captain F.W. Dreyer
HMS Royal Oak (d), Capt. C. MacLachlan
HMS Suberb (d), flag Rear Admiral Duff, RA4BS, Capt. E Hyde-Parker
HMS Canada (d), Capt. WCM Nicholson

Attached Fleet Flagship:
HMS Active, Captain P.Withers

Tender to HMS Iron Duke:
HMS Oak, LtCdr. D Faviell (Destroyer Tender to the Flagship)

Marksman class destroyer-minelayer:
HMS Abdiel, Commander Curtis
Planned to lay a minefield to the SW of the Vyl lightship on the night of 31st May /  1st June.
Detached at 2315, 31st May  to lay 30 mines 15 miles SW  by W of the Vyl lightship, to the west of a similar line laid on 4th May.  Mines laid 0224-0300.
SMS Ostfriesland struck a mine in the 4th May line at 0620, 1st June.

4BS, 4th Division, Scapa Flow
HMS Benbow (d), flag, Vice Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee, VA4BS; Capt. HW Parker
HMS Bellerophon (d), Capt. EF Bruen
HMS Temeraire (d), Capt. EV Underhill
HMS Vanguard (d), Capt. JD Dick

Attached 4BS
HMS Blanche, Captain J.M. Casement

1BS, 5th Division, Scapa Flow
HMS Colossus (d), flag, Rear Admiral E.F.A. Gaunt, RA1BS, Captain A.D.P.R. Pound
HMS Collingwood (d), Capt. JC Ley
HMS Neptune (d), Capt. VHG Bernard
HMS St. Vincent (d), Captain W.W. Fisher

1BS, 6th Division,
HMS Marlborough (d) *, flag Vice Admiral Sir Cecil Burney, VA1BS, Captain G.P. Ross (repairs completed 2nd August)
HMS Revenge (d), Capt. ES Kiddle
HMS Hercules (d), Captain Clinton-Baker
HMS Agincourt (o), Capt. HM Doughty

Attached 1BS
HMS Bellona, Captain A.B.S. Dutton

1CS, Cromarty
HMS Defence +, flag Rear Admiral Sir Robert Arbuthnot +, Bt., RA1CS, Captain S.V. Ellis +
HMS Warrior +, Captain V.B. Molteno
HMS Duke of Edinburg, Captain H. Blackett
HMS Black Prince +, Captain T.P. Bonham +

2CS, Scapa Flow
HMS Minotaur, flag, Rear Admiral H.L. Heath, RA2CS, Captain C.S.H. D’Aeth
HMS Hampshire, Capt. HJ Savill
HMS Cochrane, Capt. E la T Leatham
HMS Shannon, Capt. JS Dumaresq

4LCS, Scapa Flow
HMS Calliope, flag, Commodore C.E. le Mesurier, Cmdre, 4LCS
HMS Constance, Capt. CS Townsend
HMS Comus, Capt. AG Hotham
HMS Caroline, Captain HR Crooke
HMS Royalist, Capt. H Meade

4DF, Scapa Flow

Destroyer leaders:
HMS Tipperary +, flag, Captain C.J. Wintour + (D.4)
HMS Broke *, Commander AL Wilson

1 Admiralty M class
HMS Ophelia, Commander LGE Crabbe (escorting 3BCS)

16 K class destroyers
HMS Achates, Commander Hutchinson
HMS Porpoise, Cdr. HD Colville
HMS Spitfire *, Lt. Commander C.W.E. Trelawny
HMS Unity, Lt. Commander AM Lecky
HMS Garland, Lt. Commander R.S. Goff
HMS Ambuscade, Lt. Commander G.A. Coles
HMS Ardent +, Lt. Commander A. Marsden +
HMS Fortune +, Lt. Commander F.G,. Terry +
HMS Sparrowhawk +, Lt. Commander S. Hopkins
HMS Contest, Lt. Commander EGH Master
HMS Shark +, Lt. Commander L.W. Jones + (escorting 3BCS)
HMS Acasta *, Lt. Commander J.O. Barron (escorting 3BCS)
HMS Christopher, Lt. Commander F.M. Kerr (escorting 3BCS)
HMS Owl, Cdr. RG Hamond
HMS Hardy, Cdr. RAA Plowden
HMS Midge, LtCdr. JRC Cavendish

11DF, Scapa Flow
HMS Castor *, Commodore J.R.P. Hawksley, Commodore (F)

Destroyer leader:
HMS Kempenfelt, Commander HE Sullivan

11 Admiralty M class destroyers
HMS Ossory, Cdr. HV Dundas
HMS Mystic, Cdr. CF Allsup
HMS Magic, LtCdr. GC Wynter
HMS Mandate, LtCdr. E McCW Lawrie
HMS Minion, LtCdr. HC Rawlings
HMS Martial, LtCdr. J Harrison
HMS Milbrook, Lt. CG Naylor
HMS Marne, LtCdr. GB Hartford
HMS Manners, LtCdr. GC Harrison
HMS Michael, LtCdr. CL Bate
HMS Mons, LtCdr. R Makin
HMS 3 Yarrow M class destroyers
HMS Morning Star, LtCdr. HU Fletcher
HMS Mounsey, LtCdr RV Eyre
HMS Moon, Cdr. WD Irvin

12DF, Scapa Flow

Destroyer leaders:
HMS Faulknor, Captain A.J.B. Stirling, D.12
HMS Marksman, Cdr. NA Sullivan (Flag, 2nd Half Flotilla)

14 Admiralty M class destroyers
HMS Obedient, Cdr GW McO Campbell
HMS Maenad, Cdr. JP Champion
HMS Opal, Cdr. GC Sumner
HMS Mary Rose, LtCdr. EA Homan
HMS Marvel, LtCdr. TW Grubb
HMS Menace, LtCdr CA Poignand
HMS Nessus, LtCdr. EQ Carter
HMS Narwhal, LtCdr. HV Hudson
HMS Mindful, Lt Cdr JJC Ridley
HMS Onslaught***, Lt. Commander A.G. Onslow, DSC•
HMS Munster, LtCdr. SF Russell
HMS Nonsuch, LtCdr HIN Lyon
HMS Nobel, LtCdr. HP Boxer
HMS Mischief, LtCdr. CA Ward

Seaplane carrier (Scapa Flow):
HMS Campania, Captain O. Schwann, missed the signal to sail, weighed anchor 2 hours late at 2345, but ordered back to Scapa at 0437.  HMS Campania could have caught up with the Grand Fleet at about 1330 on 31st May.
10 aircraft, type unknown

Temporarily attached Grand Fleet for gunnery practice at Scapa Flow:

HMS Invincible + (d), flag, Rear Admiral  the Hon. H.A. Hood +, RA3BCS, Captain A.L. Cay +, Gunnery Officer Commander H. Dannreither +
HMS Inflexible (d), Captain EHF Heaton-Ellis
HMS Indomitable (d), Captain F.W. Kennedy

Attached 3BCS:

HMS Chester *, Captain R.N. Lawson, from 3LCS
HMS Canterbury, Captain P.M.R. Royds, from 5LCS, Harwich

3. Harwich Force:

HMS Carysfoot, flag, Commodore R. Tyrwhitt
HMS Arethusa
HMS Cleopoatra
HMS Conquest
HMS Penelope

9th DF
HMS Undaunted

1 destroyer leader (Marksman class)
HMS Lightfoot,

17 L class destroyers:
HMS Lark
HMS Laverock
HMS Linnet
HMS Laertes
HMS Laforey
HMS Lance
HMS Lawford
HMS Legion
HMS Lennox
HMS Leonidas
HMS Llewellyn
HMS Lookout
HMS Loyal
HMS Lucifer
HMS Lysander
HMS Lassoo
HMS Lochinar

10th DF
HMS Aurora

1 destroyer leader
HMS Nimrod

10 Admiralty M class destroyers
HMS Manly
HMS Mansfield
HMS Matchless
HMS Mentor
HMS Meteor
HMS Milne
HMS Minos
HMS Miranda
HMS Murray
HMS Myngs

Actions of the Harwich Force:

1. A letter of 14th November 1914 from the Admiralty to C-in-C GF promised the C-in-C that the Harwich Force would join him if a fleet action was imminent.  This was overlooked or forgotten by the Admiralty on 30th May
2. Admiralty informed the C-in-C at 1755, 30th May, that the Harwich force, 3BS and 3CS would not be sent to sea until more was known of the German objectives
3. The Harwich Force was ordered at 1820, 30th May, to be ready to sail at daylight if required.
4. At 2235, 30th May, the orders were modified to hold the Force at one hour’s notice.
5. The Harwich force would have had to have sailed by 2000, 30th May, to have reached Beatty’s rendezvous point, sailing at 18 knots.
6. At 0435, 31st May, Tyrwhitt sent an urgent telegram to the Admiralty, reminding them that he had received no further orders.   The reply was to remain at one hour’ s notice, as no further indication of the enemy’s objectives had been received.
7. Tyrwhitt would have had to have sailed at 0500 on the 31st to have reached Jellicoe before dark.
8. The Harwich Force sailed without orders at 1645 on 31st May with 5 light cruisers, 2 destroyer leaders and 16 destroyers
9. The Harwich Force was ordered back to Harwich to await further orders by the Admiralty at 1712 on 31st May, when at the Cork light vessel of the mouth of the River Orwell.
10. The Harwich Force was finally ordered to join the Grand Fleet at 0252 on 1st June, and sailed at 0350, when all fear of a combined raid by a detachment of the HSF and the German destroyers in Belgian ports on the Channel had passed.
11. I am unsure as to which 16 destroyers sailed.

4. Based at Sheerness, but actually lying in the Swin, the northern passage of the Thames estuary:

HMS Africa
HMS Albermarle
HMS Britannia
HMS Commonwealth
HMS Dominion
HMS Hindustan

HMS Antrim
HMS Devonshire
HMS Roxburgh

Received no sailing orders.

5. Harwich Submarine Flotilla

Regular patrols off Terschelling:
E16, E23, E37, H9 on patrol, 24th – 30th May
D3, V1, H10 sailed from Harwich at 1200, 1st June to relieve them

Additional Patrols:
HMS Lurcher,E31, E53, D6 left Harwich on the evening of 30th May to patrol positions off Southwold, midway to the Dutch coast.

E55, E26, D1 left Harwich on the evening of 30th May for the Vyl light.

HMS Talisman, G2, G3, G4, G5 left Harwich at 1200, 31st May for a patrol position on the SE side of the Dogger Bank.

6. Blyth Submarine Flotilla:

Regular Patrols, 54o00’- 54o30’N, 2o30’-3o30’E :
G3, G4, on patrol 24th – 28th May
G6, E42 sailed from Blythe to relieve them on 28th May

Additional patrols:
G10, E30 off Southern Norway from 28th to 31st May, 1st June, respectively

There were no British submarines in the Kattegat between 28th May when the G1 left, and 7th June.

7. Ships absent:

Menelaus: Kite Balloon Ship: Cmdr. C.W.N. McCulloch - unable to raise steam in time to sail with the Fleet, left Scapa at 0130; ordered back with defects at 0430, May 31.

1BS: Royal Sovereign: Capt. A.T. Hunt - Remained in port (joined GF 25th May 1916, not yet worked up)
2BCS: HMAS Australia Capt. S.H. Radcliffe repairing collision with HMS New Zealand, Devonport (rejoined 9th June)
5BS: HMS Queen Elizabeth Capt. G.P.W. Hope refitting at Rosyth dockyard (in 30th May 1916, out 1st June 1916)
4BS: HMS Emperor of India Capt. C.W.R. Royds in the floating dock at Invergordon until 3rd June

2CS: HMS Achilles (Capt. F.M. Leake) refitting
2CS: HMS Donegal (Capt. W.H. D'Oyly) detached to intercept shipping off the coast of Norway
4BS: HMS Blonde, refitting
3LCS: HMS Chatham, struck a mine on 26th May, refitting

1DF: HMS Botha, Jackal, Archer, Tigress, Phoenix
4DF: Cockatrice, Paragon, Victor
11DF: Marmion, Musketeer
12DF: Napier, Maleluke
13DF: Negro, Nereus, Paladin, Penn, Pigeon, Nepean

HMS Dreadnought (d), refitting, then to 3BS, Sheerness

8. Ships completing or working up:

HMS Ramilles (d), launched 12th September 1916, completed ?th September 1917
HMS Resolution (d), launched 14th January 1915, completed ?th December 1916

HMS Renown (d), completed 20th September 1916, joined 1BCS January 1917
HMS Repulse (d), completed 18th August 1916, joined BCF as flagship 1BCS, 16th September 1916

13DF: 4 Admiralty M class completed 29th-31st May 1916

9. After the battle: Scapa Flow, Cromarty and Rosyth: 1800 hours, 2nd June 1916, Scapa Flow:

C-in-CGF reported 24 dreadnought battleships and 3 battlecruisers ready for sea:

2BS, 1st Division, Cromarty
HMS King George V (d), flag, Sir Martyn Jerram, VA2BS
HMS Ajax (d)
HMS Centurion (d)
HMS Erin (o)

2BS, 2nd Division, Cromarty
HMS Monarch (d), flag Rear Admiral Arthur Leveson, RA2BS
HMS Conqueror (d)
HMS Orion (d)
HMS Thunderer (d), Captain J.A. Ferguson

4BS, 3rd Division, Scapa Flow
HMS Iron Duke (d), flag, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, CinCGF, Captain F.W. Dreyer
HMS Royal Oak (d), Capt. C. MacLachlan
HMS Suberb (d), flag Rear Admiral Duff, RA4BS,
HMS Canada (d), Capt. WCM Nicholson

4BS, 4th Division, Scapa Flow
HMS Benbow (d), flag, Vice Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee, VA4BS; Capt. HW Parker
HMS Bellerophon (d), Captain EV Underhill
HMS Temeraire (d) Capt. EV Underhill
HMS Vanguard (d) Capt. JD Dick

1BS, 5th Division, Scapa Flow
HMS Colossus (d), flag, Rear Admiral E.F.A. Gaunt, RA1BS, Captain A.D.P.R. Pound
HMS Collingwood (d)
HMS Neptune (d)
HMS St. Vincent (d), Captain W.W. Fisher

1BS, 6th Division,
HMS Revenge (d), flag Vice Admiral Sir Cecil Burney, VA1BS
HMS Hercules (d), Captain Clinton-Baker
HMS Agincourt (o), Captain Doughty

5BS, Rosyth, from Scapa Flow, Rear Admiral Hugh Evans-Thomas, RA5BS
13th Subdivision:
HMS Valiant (d), Captain M. Woollcombe

On 5th June, the BCF was reorganised:
2BCS, Rosyth:
HMS New Zealand (d), Captain J.E.F. Green
HMS Inflexible (d), Captain Heaton-Ellis
HMS Indomitable (d), Captain F.W. Kennedy

To join:

HMAS Australia, flag Rear Admiral W.C. Packenham, RA2BCS (returned from Devonport on 7th June)
HMS Emperor of India, in the floating dock at Invergordon until 3rd June, to 4BS
HMS Royal Sovereign, joined GF 25th May 1916, not yet worked up, to 1BS

III. German Forces

1. Battlecruiser force, Vice Admiral Franz von Hipper

Departed Schillig Roads at 0100, 31st May

I Scouting Group
Vizeadmiral Franz von Hipper, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Erich Raeder
SMS Lützow +, flag, Vizeadmiral Franz von Hipper, Kapitän zur See Harder, 1. Artillerieoffizier Korvettenkapitän Paschen;
SMS Derflinger *, Kapitän zur See Hartog, 1. Artillerieoffizier Korvettenkapitän G. von Hase; (repairs completed 15 October, returned to service December 1916)
SMS Seydlitz * Kapitän zur See von Egidy, 1. Artillerieoffizier Kapitänleutnant Forster; (returned to service 16th September 1916)
SMS Moltke * Kapitän zur See Harpf, 1. Artillerieoffizier Kapitänleutnant Scharmacher; (returned to 30th July 1916)
SMS von der Tann * Kapitän zur See Zenker; 1. Artillerieoffizier Korvettenkapitän Marholz; (returned to service 2nd August 1916)

IXth Flotilla
V 28, Kapitänleutnant Lenßen hoisting Korvettenkapitän Goehle (Flottila-Leader) - screening 1SG
IXth Flotilla, 17th Half Flotilla
V27 +, Oberleutnant zur See Buddecke
V26, Kapitänleutnant Hans Köhler
S36, Kapitänleutnant Franz Fischer
S51, Kapitänleutnant Dette
S52, Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Ehrentraut

IXth Flotilla, 18th Half Flotilla
V30, Oberleutnant zur See Ernst Wolf hoisting Korvettenkapitän Werner Tillessen (flag),
S34, Kapitänleutnant Andersen
S33, Kapitänleutnant von Münch
V29 +, Kapitänleutnant Erich Steinbrinck
S35 +, Kapitänleutnant Fredrich Ihn

IInd Scouting Group
Konteradmiral F. Boedicker
SMS Frankfurt, * Kapitän zur See Thilo von Trotha hoisting Konteradmiral F. Boedicker (flag)
SMS Pillau Fregattenkapitän Konrad Mommsen
SMS Elbing +, Fregattenkapitän Madlung
SMS Wiesbaden +, Fregattenkapitän Reiß +

IInd Flotilla
B98, Kapitänleutnant Theodor Hengstenberg hoisting Fregattenkapitän Schuur (flag)
IInd Flotilla, 3rd Half Flotilla
Korvettenkapitän Boest (flag) on B 98
G101, Kapitänleutnant Rudolf Schulte
G102, Kapitänleutnant von Barendorff
B112, Kapitänleutnant August Claussen
B97, Kapitänleutnant Leo Riedel

IInd Flotilla, 4th Half Flotilla
Korvettenkapitän Dithmar (flag) on B 109
B109, Kapitänleutnant Victor Hahndorff
B110, Kapitänleutnant Bollheim
B111, Kapitänleutnant Schickhardt
G103, Kapitänleutnant Fritz Spiess
G104 , Kapitänleutnant von Bartenwerffer

VIth Flotilla
G41 Kapitänleutnant Hermann Boehm hoisting Korvettenkapitän Max Schultz (flag)
VIth Flotilla, 11th Half Flotilla, Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rümann ono G 41
V44, Kapitänleutnant Holleuffer
G87, Kapitänleutnant Karstens
G86, Kapitänleutnant Grimm

VIth Flotilla, 12th Half Flotilla
V69, Kapitänleutnant Stecher hoisting Kapitänleutnant Lahs (flag),
V45, Kapitänleutnant Lassmann
V46, Kapitänleutnant Krumhaar
S50, Kapitänleutnant Recke
G37, Kapitänleutnant Wolf von Trotha

2. High Seas Fleet, Main Body

Chef der Hochseestreitkräfte:Vizeadmiral Reinhard Scheer
Chef des Stabes: Kapitän zur See Adolf von Trotha
Chef der Operationsabteilung: Kapitän zur See von Levezow

All onboard SMS Friedrich der Große

IIIrd Squadron, 5th Division
Konteradmiral Paul Behncke, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Freiherr von Sagern
SMS König * flag, Kapitän zur See Brüninghaus, (repairs completed 21st July)
SMS Grosser Kurfürst * Kapitän zur See Goette (repairs completed 16th July)
SMS Markgraf * Kapitän zur See Seiferling (repairs completed 20th July)
SMS Kronprinz Kapitän zur See Konstanz Feldt

IIIrd Squadron, 6th Division
Konteradmiral H. Nordmann (2nd Admiral of IIIrd Squadron)
SMS Kaiser, flag, Konteradmiral H. Nordmann, Kapitän zur See Freiherr von Keyserlingk
SMS Prinzregent Luitpold, Kapitän zur See Heuser
SMS Kaiserin , Kapitän zur See Sievers

Flottenflaggschiff: SMS Friedrich der Große, Kapitän zur See Theodor Fuchs (not in squadronal or divisional organisation)

Ist Squadron, 1st Division
Vizeadmiral E. Schmidt, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Wolfgang Wegener
SMS Ostfriesland * flag, Vizeadmiral Schmidt, Kapitän zur See von Natzmer (repairs completed 26th July)
SMS Thüringen, Kapitän zur See Hans Küsel
SMS Helgoland, * Kapitän zur See von Kamecke (repairs completed 16th July)
SMS Oldenburg, Kapitän zur See Höpfner

Ist Squadron, 2nd Division
Konteradmiral W. Engelhart (2nd Admiral of Ist Squadron)
SMS Posen, flag, Konteradmiral Engelhart, Kapitän zur See Richard Lange
SMS Rheinland * Kapitän zur See Rohardt (repairs completed 10th June)
SMS Nassau * (repairs completed 10th July)
SMS Westfalen * Kapitän zur See Redlich (repairs completed 17th June)

IInd Squadron
Konteradmiral F. Mauve
Added to Scheer's plan "at the last moment"; left the Elbe at 0145, 31st May, joined astern of the German dreadnoughts at 0445 31st May

IInd Squadron, 3rd Division
Konteradmiral Mauve, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Kahlert
SMS Deutschland, flag, Konteradmiral Mauve, Kapitän zur See Meurer
SMS Pommern +, Kapitän zur See Bölken +
SMS Schlesien, Kapitän zur See Fr. Behncke

IInd Squadron, IVth Division
Konteradmiral Freiherr F. von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels (2nd Admiral of IInd Squadron)
SMS Schleswig-Holstein, Kapitän zur See Barrentrapp
SMS Hessen, Kapitän zur See Bartels
SMS Hannover, flag, Konteradmiral Baron von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels, Kapitän zur See Wilhelm Heine

IVth Scouting Group
Kommodore L. von Reuter, Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Heinrich Weber
SMS Stettin, Fregattenkapitän Friedrich Rebensburg
SMS München, Korvettenkapitän Oscar Böcker
SMS Frauenlob +, Fregattenkapitän Georg Hoffman
SMS Stuttgart, Fregattenkapitän Hagedorn

Attached IVth Scouting Group
SMS Hamburg, Kapitän zur SeeBauer, Leader of Submarines

1st Leader of Destroyers
Kommodore A. Michelsen, Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Junkermann
SMS Rostock +, Kommodore A. Michelsen, Fregattenkapitän Otto Feldmann

2nd Leader of Destroyers
Kommodore P. Heinrich, Admiralstabsoffizier Kapitänleutnant Meier
SMS Regensburg, Kommodore P. Heinrich, Fregattenkapitän Heuberer

Ist Flotilla, 1st Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Conrad Albrecht (flag)
G38, Kapitänleutnant Metger
G39, flag, Oberleutnant zur See Loefen
G40 *, Kapitänleutnant Richard Beitzen
S32, Kapitänleutnant Fröhlich

IIIrd Flotilla
S53, Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Götting hoisting Korvettenkapitän Hollman (flag)
IIIrd Flotilla, 5th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Gautier
V71, Oberleutnant zur See Friedrich Ulrich hoistingKapitänleutnant Gautier
V73, Kapitänleutnant Delbrück
G88, Kapitänleutnant Scabell

IIIrd Flotilla, 6th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Karlowa
S54, Kapitänleutnant Karlowa
V48 +, Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Eckoldt
G42, Kapitänleutnant Bernd von Arnim

Vth Flotilla
G11, Kapitänleutnant Adolf Müller hosting Korvettenkapitän Heinecke (flag)
Vth Flotilla, 9th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Hoefer:
V2, Kapitänleutnant Hoefer
V4 +, Kapitänleutnant Barop
V6, Oberleutnant zur See Hans Behrendt
V1, Oberleutnant zur See Nöthig
V3 Kapitänleutnant Manfred von Killinger

Vth Flotilla, 10th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Klein
G8, Oberleutnant zur See Rodenberg hosting KapitänleutnantFriedrich Klein
G7, Kapitänleutnant Meinecke
V5, Oberleutnant zur See Tils
G9, Kapitänleutnant Anschütz
G10, Oberleutnant zur See Haumann

VIIth Flotilla
S24 Kapitänleutnant Fink hoisting Korvettenkapitän von Koch (flag)
VIIth Flotilla, 13th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant G. von Zitzewitz on S15
S15, Oberleutnant zur See Christian Schmidt
S17, Kapitänleutnant von Puttkammer
S20, Kapitänleutnant Benecke
S16, Kapitänleutnant Walter Loeffler
S18, Kapitänleutnant Haushalter

VIIth Flotilla, 14th Half Flotilla
Korvettenkapitän Hermann Cordes
S19, Oberleutnant zur See Reimer hoisting Korvettenkapitän Hermann Cordes
S23, Kapitänleutnant Arthur von Killinger
V189, Oberleutnant zur See Keil
Less V186, Kapitänleutnant W. von Keyserlingk sent back to Helgoland with a leaky condenser, at 0715, 31st May

3. U-boats:

Patrol lines for the original operation, a bombardment of Sunderland on 23rd May:

Patrol line off the Firth of Forth:
U66 - U63 - U51 - U32 - U70 - U24 - U52

U47 reconnoitered Sunderland, night of 21/22 May, then to patrol off Peterhead

U46, U67 off Terschelling; U46 delayed by engine problems

UB21, UB22, off the Humber

UB27, off the Forth, which she was to attempt to enter

The following U-boats received the first warning signal “31 Gg.2490”, that the High Seas Fleet would be at sea at 1004, 31st May:

U32 Kapitänleutnant von Speigel, off the Forth
U67 off Terschelling
U70 off the Forth
UB22 off the Humber

The following received a later transmission of the warning signal at 0100, 31st May:
U66 Kapitänleutnant von Bothmer, off Peterhead

The following submarines were also on patrol off the British Coast:
U43 east of the Pentland Firth
U44 Kapitänleutnant Wagenfuhr, east of the Pentland Firth
U63 Kapitänleutnant O. Schultz, off the Forth
U46 Kapitänleutnant L. Hillebrand, returning to base, periscope u/s
UB27 Kapitänleutnant Dickson, returning to port, port propeller u/s after clearing nets in the Firth of Forth, 25th May .

Minelaying submarine missions:
U72 to lay 22 mines in the Moray Firth, but returned 25th May with leaky oil tank.
U74 to lay 22 mines in the Firth of Forth, but sunk with all hands by gunfire from 4 armed trawlers on 27th May.
U75 to lay 22 mines to the west of the Orkneys. On 29th May U75 laid mines in a channel normally used by fleet auxiliaries 2 miles to the west of the Orkneys.  These mines were in fact laid in the wrong position: U75 laid the mines off Marwick Head, on the NW coast of the main Orkney Island, mistaking it for Hoy Island.  HMS Hampshire, with Lord Kitchener on board, was sunk in this minefield on 5th June.

4. Flanders U-boat Flotilla:

UC10, UC6, UC1 (12 mines each) to lay mines off Harwich and the Thames estuary on the night of 31st May – 1st June

UB17, UB29, UB19, UB12, UB10, UB6 to patrol off the Suffolk coast from 0300 1st June to 1600 2nd June

UB18, UB23 to patrol the Dutch coast as far as Terschelling, then to join the patrol ilnes off the Suffolk coast

UC1 developed an engine defect and returned to base

5. Zeppelins

KorvetteKapitän Peter Strasser, Leader of Airships

5.1 Airship reconnaissance between the Skagerrak and Framborough Head from 1130, 31st May:

Weather was very hazy, with cloud base at 1000 feet, which inhibited reconnaissance.

L9,  100 miles E of Sunderland, but forced back with engine trouble
L14,  Skagerrak, but did not reach its assigned area, being late to take off (?)
L16,  80 miles E of Flamborough Head (off the Humber)
L21,  Kapitänleutnant Dietricht, 120 miles E of Peterhead.  L21 was ordered to reconnoiter the Dogger Bank on the afternoon of 31st May, but held his course for Peterhead.
L23,  Kapitänleutnant von Schubert, 240 miles E of Noss Head (Pentland Firth), but changed his plans on his own initiative to scout to the north of the advancing Ist Scouting Group, in place of L14.
L23 sighted L14 on her starboard quarter at 1750, 15 miles NW of the Horn’s Reef lightship, steering NNW for the Skagerrak.  However at 1830 on the 31st May, L23 was still 50 miles SW of the position at which the 1st SG first sighted the BCF, i.e. both airships were well astern of the HSF.

5.2 Airship reconnaissance requested over the Horn’s Reef at dawn, 1st June, provided by 6 airships that took off shortly after midnight:

The weather was again hazy, with low cloud base at 3200 feet to 1000 feet.

L11,  KorvetteKapitän Schütze, scouted the area NW of Helgioland.
At 0400, 90 miles NW of Heligoland, L11 sighted “12 British battleships and numerous smaller vessels steering NNE at high speed”.  These were 1BCS and 2 BCS, accompanied by 2CS and LCS.  This was reported to Vizeadmiral Scheer.
At 0440 L11 then sighted “a second squadron of 6 dreadnoughts, accompanied by light forces, approximately 18 miles NNW of the vessels first sighted”.  These were the rear ships of the Grand Fleet.
At 0450, L11 then sighted “3 battle-cruisers and 4 smaller vessels, about 20 miles N of the vessels first sighted”.  These were 1BS, 6th Division, HMS Revenge, Hercules and Agincourt, screened by HMS Faulknor, Obedient, and Marvel.  L11 was then taken under fire from up to 21 ships, in the light of the rising sun.
L11 was forced to break contact at 0520 and run before the wind to the NE.  L11 descended again at 0535 and took up position between the GF and the HSF, and remained off the Horn’s Reef until recalled at 0700.
Viceadmiral Scheer interpreted the formations sighted by L11 to be the Harwich force.
L13,  searched the area N and W of Terschelling.
L17,  cruised the area 50 miles SSW to WNW of Horn’s Reef.
L22,  sighted gunfire, searchlights and explosions between 0100 and 0200, 20-35 miles NW of Horn’s Reef; broke off reconnaissance at 0300 owing to a strong SW wind driving her off course.
L24,  sighted gunfire, searchlights and explosions between 0100 and 0200, 20-35 miles NW of Horn’s Reef; fired at by light forces at 023 50 miles W of Bovbjerg, and again at 0305.  L24 dropped several running salvoes of 3 to 5 * 110 lb / 50 kg bombs on unidentified vessels.
L24 then sighted a force of “twelve large units and many cruisers, formed in line abreat with the cruisers out ahead”.   This was a British convoy plus escorts in Jammer Bay on the N coast of Jutland; L24 was driven off by gunfire.
This was reported to Vizeadmiral Scheer, who interpreted the formation to be the Grand Fleet.

6. Ships absent:

IIIrd Squadron: SMS Koenig Albert, turbine (Marder) or condenser (Tarrant) trouble, dockyard
IInd Squadron: SMS Pruessen, 2BS, guard ship, Baltic

SMS Bayern, commissioned 18th March 1916, not yet worked up, on trails in the Baltic

SMS Graudenz, dockyard, repairing mine damage
SMS Straslund, dockyard, refitting with 5.9” guns
SMS Strasburg, Baltic
SMS Kolberg, Baltic
SMS Augsburg, Baltic
SMS Brummer, ready for service, but not included in battle orders
IVth Scouting Group: SMS Berlin, dockyard

Ist Flotilla:  7 vessels forming the balance of the flotilla
IIIrd Flotilla:  V74, G85, V70, S55
VIth Flotilla:  S49, V43
VIIth Flotilla:  one older vessel

7. Major ships under construction:

SMS Baden  completed October 1916
SMS Hindenburg  completed October 1917

8. After the battle: Wilhelmshaven, 1800 hours, 2nd June:

The High Seas Fleet can muster 10 dreadnoughts ready for sea.

IIIrd Squadron, Vth Division, Konteradmiral P. Behncke (1)
SMS Kronprinz

IIIrd Squadron, VIth Division, Konteradmiral H. Nordmann (4)
SMS Kaiser, flag, Konteradmiral H. Nordmann, Kapitän zur See Baron von Keyserlingk
SMS Prinzregent Luitpold
SMS Kaiserin
SMS Koenig Albert

SMS Frederich der Grosse, flag, Vizeadmiral Reinhart Scheer (1)

Ist Squadron, Ist Division, Vizeadmiral E. Schmidt (2)
SMS Thuringen
SMS Oldenburg, Kapitän zur See Hopfner

Ist Squadron, IInd Division, Konteradmiral W. Engelhart (2)
SMS Posen, flag, Konteradmiral Engelhart
SMS Rheinland (?)

IV. Sources:

Breyer, S, (1973), Battleships and Battlecruisers, 1905-1970
Campbell, N.J.M., (1986); Jutland: an analysis of the fighting
Dittmar, F.J. & Colledge, J.J., (1972); British Warships 1914-1919
Gordon, A., (1997); The rules of the game.
Irving, J. (1966): The smokescreen of Jutland
Jellicoe, Sir John J., & Beattie, Sir David, (1916): The Battle of Jutland Bank, May 31 - June 1, 1916, Dispatches
Marder, A.J., (1965); From Dreadnought to Scapa Flow, Volume 3, Jutland and After
Roberts, J. (1997); Battlecruisers
Tarrant, V.E., (1995): Jutland: the German perspective