Early Post-War Torpedoes

Post war, the Japanese Navy imported USA torpedoes for their ships. In particular, the USA Mark 14, Mark 23, Mark 32, Mark 34, Mark 37, Mark 44 and Mark 46 torpedoes were used. See details on the USA World War II Torpedoes and the USA Post-World War II Torpedoes datapages.

53.3 cm (21") Experimental Type 54 Model 3 Mod 1

Ship Class Used On Type Hei Guard Ships (PT Boats), destroyers and submarines
Date Of Design 1953
Date In Service 1954
Weight about 3,230 lbs. (1,600 kg)
Overall Length 299 in (7.60 m)
Explosive Charge 220 lbs. (100 kg) TNT
Range / Speed 6,560 yards (6,000 m) / 24 knots
Power Lead-acid battery

The first Japanese-designed torpedo built after the war. The original variant, Type 54 Mod 1, was a non-homing, straight running torpedo for PT boats. This was an unsuccessful design, with problems including sinking when launched. Mod 2 resolved many of the problems in the Mod 1 and added a surface-target acoustical homing system. Used on DD and DEs, but it was found that the torpedo body lacked strength and that the homing system was unreliable. Mod 3 improved the homing system to a 3D type (surface and submarine targets) and this proved to be much more successful. Approximately 60 Model 3 torpedoes were built. The Japanese were not satisfied with this design and in 1966 an improved Model 3 Mod 1 was introduced. About 1,500 of Model 3 Mod 1 torpedoes were built. The table above is for the Model 3 Mod 1 torpedo.

53.3 cm (21") Type 72 Model 1

Ship Class Used On Torpedo Boats and Submarines
Date Of Design 1966
Date In Service 1972
Weight about 3,230 lbs.(1,600 kg)
Overall Length 246 in (6.25 m)
Explosive Charge 660 lbs. (300 kg) TNT
Range / Speed 10,940 yards (10,000 m) / 65 knots
21,870 yards (20,000 m) / 45 knots
Power Hydrogen Peroxide

This is a non-homing torpedo for submarines and torpedo boats. Thanks to using Hydrogen Peroxide, this is a wakeless torpedo and performance was greatly improved over older torpedoes.

Type 73

Reliable data not available.

48 cm (19") Mark 37-0-N

The Japanese version of the USA's Mark 37 torpedo. Details may be found at USA Post-World War II Torpedoes.

48 cm (19") Type 80

Ship Class Used On Uzushio and Ushio classes
Date Of Design 1980
Date In Service 1984
Weight about 1,430 lbs. (649 kg)
Overall Length 135 in (3.429 m)
Explosive Charge about 330 lbs. (150 kg) Torpex
Range / Speed Classified, over 30 knots
Power Battery

A wire-guided ASM torpedo developed from the Japanese version of the USA's Mark 37 and the GRX-1 and GRX-2 experimental programs. Has better performance, including higher speed, than does the Mark 37.

53.3 cm (21") Type 89

Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design 1989
Date In Service 1992
Weight N/A
Overall Length N/A
Explosive Charge 589 lbs. (267 kg)
Range / Speed about 54,000 yards (49,380 m) @ 40 knots
about 42,000 yards (38,400 m) @ 55 knots
Reported maximum speed is 70 knots
Power N/A

The standard heavy submarine torpedo, roughly equivalent to the USA's Mark 48. Formerly the GRX-2.

Type 93

Reliable data not available.

Type 12

Reliable data not available.

53.3 cm (21") Type 18

Reliable data not available. Replacement submarine torpedo.


"The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems 1991/92" by Norman Friedman
Koda Yoji, 2013 "国産護衛艦建造の歩み(第5回) 第1次防衛力整備計画以前 昭和29-32年度" [History of domestic production destroyers (Vol.5). Before 1st National Defense Buildup Program, FY Showa 29-32]
Magazine "Ships of the World" Vol.778, p.149-150
"Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 1997-98" edited by Anthony J. Watts
防衛庁技術研究本部 [Japan Defense Agency Technical Research and Development Institute] "防衛庁技術研究本二十五年史" [25th year history of Japan Defense Agency Technical Research and Development Institute], pp.101-102 ASIN : B000J8QJ2G
Special help from Hiramatsu Shun'ichi

Page History

13 March 2008 - Benchmark
18 October 2020 - Updated to HTML 5 format, added data for Type 54 and Type 72
04 December 2020 - Corrected typographical error