Description

This weapon was introduced to British service when two cruisers being built for Greece, Antinavarhos Kontouriotis and Lambros Katsonis, were taken over at the start of World War I and then renamed HMS Birkenhead and HMS Chester, respectively. Subsequently, this weapon was mounted on the battlecruisers Hood and Furious and later on the aircraft carrier Hermes. This was the only gun obtained in such a manner ever to be adopted for use on other British ships.

This gun caliber was selected by the Greeks over the contemporary British 6" (15.2 cm) weapons because it fired a lighter shell than did the British 6" (15.2 cm) guns and as a result its ammunition could be more easily handled. It is interesting to note that similar considerations led the Japanese to adopt the 14 cm (5.5") caliber for their light cruisers built after World War I.

During World War II, guns removed from the above ships were used to arm two AMC's while others were used for coastal defense batteries. Two ex-HMS Hood guns were sent to Ascension Island, as shown in the photographs below.

These guns were built by Coventry Ordnance Works (COW) and were of wire-wound construction with a tapered inner A tube, A tube, full-length wire, B tube, overlapping jacket, breech ring and breech bush. The Welin breech-block was manually operated with a Holmstrom mechanism. A total of 81 guns were finished out of 246 originally ordered, of which 79 still existed in 1939.

As of 2006, at least five of these guns still exist: One at the Imperial War Museum in London (formerly on HMS Chester), two on Ascension Island at Fort Benson (formerly on HMS Hood) and two on Stremoy Island (Faroe Islands) at Fort Skansin (formerly on HMS Furious).

Nomenclature note: The 5.5"/42 (14 cm) BL Mark II was intended for DAMS of World War I, but this did not progress beyond the design stage, even though 1,100 guns were planned. Construction would have been A tube, taper wire and full length jacket. Weight without BM would have been 5.625 tons (5.72 mt). Later 5.5" (14 cm) BL guns were Army howitzers of the World War II period.

Gun Characteristics

Designation 5.5"/50 (14 cm) BL Mark I
Ship Class Used On 1 Birkenhead, Chester, Hood, Furious, Hermes and submarine K17
AMCs Laurentic and Montclare
Date Of Design About 1913
Date In Service 1915
Gun Weight 15,600 lbs (7,076 kg)
Gun Length oa 284.7 in (7.232 m)
Bore Length 275 in (6.985 m)
Rifling Length 235.9 in (5.992 m)
Grooves 40
Lands N/A
Twist Uniform RH 1 in 30
Chamber Volume 1,500 in3 (24.58 dm3)
Rate Of Fire 12 rounds per minute
  1. ^It had been planned to use this gun on other K class submarines, but this was not carried out and instead they carried 4"/40 (10.2 cm) Mark XI guns.

Ammunition

Type Bag
Projectile Types and Weights 1 CPC: 82 lbs. (37.2 kg)
Common: 82 lbs. (37.2 kg)
Shrapnel: 82 lbs. (37.2 kg)
HE: 82 lbs. (37.2 kg)
Shellite: 82 lbs. (37.2 kg)
HENT: 82 lbs. (37.2 kg)
HE Mark ID: 82 lbs. (37.2 kg)
Bursting Charge 5.25 lbs. (2.4 kg)
Projectile Length N/A
Propellant Charge 2 3 1921: 22.25 lbs. (10.1 kg) MD19
1930: 22.54 lbs. (10.22 kg) SC115
Muzzle Velocity CPC: 2,790 fps (850 mps)
Others: N/A
Working Pressure 18 tons/in2 (2,531 kg/cm2)
Approximate Barrel Life N/A
Ammunition stowage per gun 4 Hood: 5
Others: N/A
  1. ^Shells were generally 4crh. The HE Mark ID 8/16crh "streamlined" shell was developed during World War II.
  2. ^The propellant charge was in a single bag.
  3. ^A reduced charge of 14.8 lbs. (6.7 kg) MD was used for practice rounds.
  4. ^Outfit included CPC and HE on all ships during World War II.
  5. ^Outfit for Hood as built was 1,728 Lyddite, 582 common, 96 shrapnel, 464 practice. After 1929-1931 refit, the outfit was 1,368 HE, 624 Shellite, 360 HENT, 50 starshell (forward shell room only) and 449 practice.

Range

Range with 82 lbs. (37.2 kg) CPC
Elevation Distance
25 degrees 16,000 yards (14,630 m) 1
30 degrees 17,770 yards (16,250 m) 1
18,500 yards (16,920 m) 2
  1. ^1.11.2This value is from "Naval Weapons of World War Two" and I believe that they are for Cordite SC.
  2. ^This value is from "Anatomy of the Ship: The Battlecruiser Hood" and I believe that it is for Cordite MD.

Mount/Turret Data

Designation
  • Single Mounts 1
    • Birkenhead and Chester (10): PI
    • Hermes (6), Furious (10) 2 , Laurentic (7) and Montclare (7): PI*
    • K17 (1) 3 : PI**
    • Hood (12) 4 : CPII
Weight PI and PI*: N/A
CPII: 18.68 tons (18.89 mt) including shield
Elevation
(see Note 3)
PI: -7 / +15 degrees
PI*: -7 / +25 degrees
PI**: -7 / +25 degrees
CPII: -5 / +30 degrees
Elevation Rate Manually operated, only
Train about -150 / +150 degrees
Train Rate Manually operated, only
Gun recoil N/A
  1. ^PI, PI*, PI** and CPII mounts were also used in coastal batteries.
  2. ^Furious had all of her mounts removed during her 1931-1932 refit.
  3. ^The PI** mounting used on K17 may actually have been limited to about +20 degrees as the gun barrel height was lower than on the PI* mounts.
  4. ^Hood had two mounts removed 1938-1939 and the remainder in 1940.

Additional Pictures

Engraving Explanation
N Navy and top of gun (orientation that results in the least amount of droop)
B.L. 5.5-In wire Mark I Breech Loading 5.5 inch (14 cm) gun of wire wound construction Mark I
C.O.W. 1918 Built at the Coventry Ordnance Works in 1918
No 56 Serial number 56

External Pictures

Images by Jan Egil Kristiansen
Gun #35 and Gun #42 at Fort Skansin.Regarding the description for Gun #42, "Holmstrom" is actually the type of breech mechanism

Sources

Data from:

  • "Naval Weapons of World War Two" by John Campbell
  • "Warships of World War II" by H.T. Lenton & J.J. Colledge
  • "Cruisers of the Royal and Commonwealth Navies" by Douglas Morris
  • "Anatomy of the Ship: The Battlecruiser Hood" by John Roberts

Page History

20 February 2008
Benchmark
30 January 2009
Added information about use on K17, added information about other marks of 5.5" (14 cm) guns
29 February 2012
Converted link to Wayback Archives